A Tribute: Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi (1916-2006)

Posted on August 16, 2006
Filed Under >Raza Rumi, People, Poetry, Urdu
Total Views: 55494


Guest Post by Raza Rumi

[ATP had carried a short post at the time of Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi's death; today we feature Raza Rumi's more in-depth tribute to the poet]

Ab aik baar to qudrat javaabdeh thehre
hazaar baar ham insaan aazmaaye gaye

Now Nature must be held accountable at least once;
We humans have been held answerable a thousand times

Few men evoke such awe and respect as the departed poet and writer Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi who breathed his last on July 10 2006. His mastery over poetry he has been equally prolific in traditional ghazal and nazm and prose as a short story writer, journalist and literary critic – stand at the pinnacle of Urdu literature and he has contributed to the language over 50 titles.

Born in 1916 amidst the scenic Soon-Sekasar valley in district Khushab, nature influenced the evolution of Qasmi’s poetic sensibilities. Exposure to the grim realities of rural India’s inequities also played their part in his development as a writer; the underlying theme of his poetry is human dignity and his short stories – regarded as next in line to another master, Munshi Prem Chand, for their directness and simplicity – portrayed the woes of the Punjabi peasantry and their interaction with power structures. Following his matriculation from Campbellpur in 1931, around the time when he wrote his first poem, he moved to the Sadiq Egerton College in Bahawalpur and graduated in 1935.

Qasmi’s early short stories such as “Hiroshima say pehle, Hiroshima Kay Baad’ narrated the devastating effects of the Hiroshima bombing on a small Punjabi village which fed recruits to the British army. His other stories “Lawrence of Thalaibia” and “Rais Khana” attacked pirs and feudal lords for their relentless exploitation of peasants.

ai Khudaa ab tere firdaus pe meraa haq hai
tuune is daur ke dozakh mein jalaayaa hai mujhe

My Lord! Now, I can rightfully claim thine paradise
You have burnt me in the hell of my times

Yet another field that benefited with Qasmi’s presence was journalism, both from his own writing and his work as an editor. By the late 1930s Qasmi was editing reformist magazines such as Phool and Taleem-i-Niswan. In the next two decades he edited renowned publications such as Adab-e-Latif, Sawera, Naqoosh, and daily Imroze – a leading Urdu daily which he left when Ayub Khan’s Progressive Papers Limited took over in 1959, despite encouragement to stay on – and finally a journal he set up himself, Fanoon.

Qasmi’s writings in Imroze and later in the daily Jang have been noted as progressive critiques on social and political issues. His journalistic writing was terse and often bold compared to his peers and he never compromised on the principles he held close to his heart. His Imroze editorials opposing Ayub Khan’s martial law landed him four months of incarceration in 1958-9. Qasmi’s last column for Jang in 2006 argued that the Constitution of 1973 was a consensus document and should not have been amended time and again.

Qasmi was awarded the Pride of Performance in 1968 and Sitara-e-Imtiaz in 1980. In 1974, he was appointed secretary-general of the Majlis-Taraqee-Adab – a Board of Advancement of Literature established by the government of West Pakistan in 1958 – and Qasmi worked in that position till his last.

The Progressive Writers Movement. The realism and literary expression against exploitation in Qasmi’s writing gained him respect among his peers and in 1948 he was selected as the secretary general of the Anjuman-e-Taraqqi Pasand Musannifeen (the Progressive Writers Movement) for Punjab from 1948 and in 1949 was elected the secretary-general of the organisation for Pakistan, a position he held for six successive years.

This wasn’t all good news for Qasmi, however, as the Progressive Writers Movement was linked to the 1951 Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case, and he was detained for six months under the Safety Act for his association with the group in 1951.

Qasmi gradually distanced himself from the Progressive Writers Movement, probably because it became difficult for him, as it did for a number of other writers, to work with some of the dogmatic communist members. He tried to steer the middle path, opposing the official orthodoxies on literature as well as the radicalism of some of his peers. There is no question that he remained a progressive writer all his life; however, he avoided the supremacy of “ideology” over creativity. For instance, his famous couplet angered many of his leftist colleagues:

Sabz ho, surkh ho, key unnabi
phool ka rang uski baas mein hai

Whether it is green, red or magenta
The colour of a flower lives in its fragrance

Fanoon: A milestone. Qasmi started his own journal Fanoon in 1962, which survives today; and is still considered to be a major literary magazine. Fanoon became a vehicle for collating prose and poetry across the country and a major nurturing ground for emerging writers. The legendary friendship and support of Khadija Mastoor and Hajira Masroor and support to a host of other writers from Ahmed Faraz and Saqi Farooqi to Najib Ahmed and others is linked to Fanoon. It is heartening that Qasmi’s will has entrusted Fanoon to his protege and a well known poet, Mansoora Ahmed.

Since the 1960s, Fanoon has been the arbiter of literary merit. Amjad Islam Amjad, Ataulhaq Qasmi, Munnoo Bhai and Nazeer Naji proudly claim Qasmi’s patronage. Perhaps the most well known of protege was Parveen Shakir, who considered Qasmi her teacher and called him ‘Ammu.’ Her first bestseller, Khushboo, was dedicated to Qasmi. They fell out towards the latter part of Parveen’s short life; and Qasmi has related the whole story in a long article published after Parveen’s tragic death in December 1994. The reasons were more personal than literary.

Mansoora, the current editor of Fanoon and winner of the Adamji award for literature is Qasmi’s adopted daughter. But Mansoora was more than a daughter; a soul mate and a protege. She devoted her life to her father, who provided her answers for the meaning of life. Mansoora’s poem, suno baba (which she recited a few years ago on a lazy afternoon in my family’s Islamabad house) makes a critical point: Qasmi invested his life in people and yet all he gained were khotay sikkay (counterfeit coins) – a reference to his group of associates and proteges.

Khotay Sikkay. Qasmi was the proverbial candle of an infinitely wide literary circle; he attracted opportunists and genuine literati alike. This is what led to some criticism about the “company” he kept. Munnoo Bhai is believed to have remarked some years ago: “Qasmi Sahib is like a big banyan tree that has been taken over by jinns and bhoots (ghosts).” But the critics overlook the fact that Qasmi and his generation had an open door policy that was based on the fundamentals of humanism. They were also forgiving by nature and accepting of all and simple in their worldly ways. No wonder Qasmi died as a poor man despite half a century of a majestic career.

Nevertheless, the wide array of Qasmi fans, students and chelas led to much envy and gossip that later turned into literary feuds. The well known tussle between Anwar Sadeed (critic) and Qasmi group is well documented. Sadeed left no stone unturned to undermine Qasmi’s stature and literary merit. Similarly, another notable poet, Dr Wazir Agha,was a life-long rival of Qasmi and his publications made it a point to censure Qasmi and his cohorts as a matter of routine and principle. Muneer Niazi, another “big” poet, was also a “rival” of sorts.

Niazi, like Qasmi, was Lahore based and also recognised for his excellent poetry. There the similarities ended. Qasmi was more than a poet. He was a versatile writer and not simply obsessed with his written output alone: he was committed to grooming others. Hence his life long forays in journalism, literary movements, mentoring and publishing.

Qasmi’s essay on Faiz Ahmed Faiz published in an Urdu quarterly by Ata-ul Haq Qasmi (former ambassador to Norway and a noted Urdu columnist), in which he had been allegedly impolite about Faiz, became a source of much consternation among Faiz’s diehard fans. Qasmi was honest about whatever he felt. But he was misunderstood. Even his worst critics – long time rivals as well as Faiz fans – would confirm that Qasmi was not an arrogant and self-obsessed man, and very much a people’s person.

Qasmi’s own biological daughter, Naheed Qasmi, is a poet of notable merit. However, not much is known about his family and personal life since most of it was devoted to his peers, proteges and literary movements. As another commentator noted, the number of flaps and forewords he had written for in aspiring writers’ books would compete for an entry in the Guinness book of world records!

Zindagii shammaa kii maanind jalaataa hoon ‘Nadeem’
Bujh to jaaoon gaa magar subah tau kar jaaoon gaa

I have lit my life like a candle,
The flame would disappear but will burn till the morning

Try as he did to nurture the next generation of poets and writers, there will never be another Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi. His is not the death of an individual – it is the coming to close of an era which sent forth and bred literary giants encompassing the entire range of literature’s linkage with art and society. Urdu literature has virtually been left an orphan across South Asia. It remains to be seen how this otherwise threatened language will cope with the loss of institutions such as Qasmi and idols such as Faiz. Even greater is the loss for Pakistan’s diminutive intelligentsia as it has lost a committed man of letters.

Dawar-e hashr! mujhe teri qasam
Umr bhar mein ne ibadat ki hay
Tu mera namaa’ amal tau dekh
Mein ne insaan se mohabbat ki hay

O Lord of the Day of Judgment
I swear by you
I have worshipped all my life
Look at my balance sheet
I have loved mankind

Raza Rumi is an international development professional and an avid literati. A version of this essay was published recently in The Friday Times. More can be found at Raza Rumi’s blog: Jahane Rumi.

17 Comments on “A Tribute: Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi (1916-2006)”

  1. August 16th, 2006 11:52 pm

    Raza Sahib and all
    My all time favourite work of Ahmed Nadeem is ‘Thal Desert’. Unfortunately I only got to read its English translation but it is still one of the most powerful short stories I’ve ever read. It talks about the time when British were laying a railway track through Thal desert and local people were so supertitious about it. No local person sat in the train until they got an ‘taweez’ (amulet) from a local pir. An excerpt from ‘Thal Desert’ is in following:

    “It was a common belief among the village women that whoever traveled in the train would become a wanderer for life. And that the train was under the shadows of the djinns and spirits who, at the instance of Hazrat Pir, had once chewed up the tracks as though they were sugarcanes. Only those inhabitants of the Thal desert dared to travel in the train who got amulets from the trustee of Hazrat Pir’s shrine. Khan Beg, a man from this village had once shown the temerity to ride the train without the amulet. As a consequence he had to move from one place to another for his entire life in search of livelihood. At last he had crossed the river Chenab to reach Chiniot where he worked as a laborer in Seth’s house. One day while he was carrying bricks on his head he slipped on the staircase, the bricks fell on his head and he died. The news of his death spread, the trustee of Hazrat Pir’s shrine got into a rage and declared, ‘Wretches! Sit on the train without my amulet, if you dare! Whoever defies Hazrat Pir will meet the same fate!

  2. sepoy says:
    August 17th, 2006 1:56 am

    i wish i could pay a proper tribute…when time permits. until then, here is a brief rememberance from his work.

    مروں تو ميں کسي چهرے ميں رنگ بهر جاوں
    نديم کاش يەي اک کام کر جاوں

    يه دشتÙ

  3. fara says:
    August 17th, 2006 5:02 am

    …..dil gaya tha tu yah ankhain bhi koi lay jata
    main faqat ik tasweer kahan tak dekhon
    sirf is shoq main pochi hain hazaron batain
    main tera husan teray husan_e_byaan tak dekhon…..Ahmed.N.qasmi

  4. August 18th, 2006 11:32 am

    I too had been unaware of the multiple layers of rifts between intellectuals that you speak of.

    My hazy recollection, however, is that early in the Zia era there was a degree of concern amongst progressives that Qasmi had failed to ‘stand up’ the way some of the other (Faiz and Faraz) had. Is that correct or am I imagining things.

    My favorite from Qasmi was he pathar nazm, that we have in the urdu up there… for those who want to read it in roman Urdu script, we had included the same in an earlier post:

  5. jugnoo says:
    August 21st, 2006 4:37 am

    Nice post about a very nice person who is not between us anymore. May ALLAH his soul rest in peace

  6. December 10th, 2006 12:22 pm

    zikr kertay hein tera mujh se ba-andaaz-e-jafa
    chaara-ger phool pero laaye hein talwaaroN mein
    – Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi -

  7. vaishali mathur says:
    August 23rd, 2007 1:20 am

    Loved Ahmed sahib’s `jalebiyan’. such wit!such humour! the portral of the young boy’s dilemma between good and bad is truly remarkable. Qasmi sahib may not be with us anymore, but he is laive with his writings.

  8. Mansoor Alam says:
    August 23rd, 2007 8:57 am

    I really appreciate the efforts aiming at projecting artists like Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi.His poetry is a reminder of the fact that it is not only with Shakespeare that you enjoy the thrill of existence but also with Qasmi sahib.

  9. October 26th, 2007 6:45 am

    He is realy a pride of Pakistan,
    Muhammad Adeel Qureshi,
    Pakistan Study Centre,
    University of KArachi,

  10. Nudrat says:
    December 13th, 2007 7:02 am

    faslay kay ma’ani ka kiun faraib khatay ho
    jitna door jaatey ho utna paas aatey ho

    raat toot partee hai jab sakoot-e-zindan mein
    tum meray khayalon mein chup kay gungunatey ho

    meri khilwat-e-gham kay aahini dareechon per
    apni muskurahat kee mash’alein jalaatey ho

    jab tani salakhon say jhanktee hai tanhai
    dil kee tarha pehloo say lag kay baith jaatey ho

    tum meray iradon kay doltay sitaron ko
    yaas kee khalaon mein raasta dikhatey ho

    kitna yaad kertay ho poochtay ho kiun mujh say
    jitna yaad kertay ho utna yaad aatey ho

    Written by Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi

  11. September 12th, 2008 10:56 pm

    Dear All,
    I wish you happy Ramzan and Eid After it. Please do not forget poor people in your happy moments.
    God Bless Pakistan and all Pakistani.

    Regards, M.Adeel Qureshi,
    Karachi University,

  12. September 12th, 2008 11:01 pm

    Dear Students and Fans of Ahmed Nadee mQasmi,

    He was the man of excellent example to follow,
    We all need to follow him as a good human being.

    M. Adeel Qureshi,
    Lecturer of international Affairs,
    Karachi University
    M.A. History ,
    M.A International Relations,
    M.Phil/PhD (in Process)

  13. September 29th, 2008 2:48 am

    Sehar hoi to taroon ne moondh li aankheen,
    Wo kia karen?!!! Jinhen intezaar kerna hai


  14. October 6th, 2008 2:38 am

    Wafa ki daastan-e-gham, chalo tumko sunate hain,
    Jo dil per daagh hain apne, wo sab tumko dikhate hain,

    Suno neendeen naheen aati, Ke dil betaab rehta hai,
    Kabhi titli ke katche rang, Kabhi jugno satate hain,

    Kabhi jab shaam hoti hai, Andheron se khafa ho k,
    Teri yaadon ke Mandir me Chirag-e-Gham Jalate hain,

    M.Adeel Qureshi,
    Social Sciences & Huminities,
    University of Karachi

  15. October 21st, 2008 3:21 am

    Tax provisions included in the US Emergency Economic Stabilisation Plan will cost more than $100 billion over the course of 10 years and include changes to Subpart F rules, tax breaks for energy producers and relief for financial institutions that invested in the Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac mortgage corporations.

    The provisions received a mixed reaction.

    “They had to include these tax breaks to get the thing passed,” said one senior Washington DC adviser. “I see no other reason for them being included.”

    “The breaks gave some wavering members some political cover for voting for the bailout by saying ‘we needed to get the AMT relief passed so I am helping taxpayers even though I am voting for this gigantic expensive bailout,” said Chris Edwards director of tax policy studies at the Cato Institute.

    “Extension of the Subpart F active financing exception and the Subpart F look-through rule in the bailout bill are critical and welcome steps in allowing US multinationals to remain competitive with foreign-based firms,” said Marc Gerson, member at Miller and Chevalier in Washington DC. “Hopefully, Congress will consider extending them permanently, or at least on a longer term basis, in the near future.”

    The legislation provides energy incentives, extends many expired and expiring tax provisions, patches the individual alternative minimum tax (AMT) for one year and offers tax relief to victims of recent natural disasters in the Midwest and the Gulf Coast.

    The bailout plan also includes tax provisions that would treat as ordinary income losses on sales of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac preferred stock by financial institutions (referred to under section 582(c)(2)) or depository institution holding companies (as defined by section 3(w)(1) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act).

    For the energy industry there are some important changes. The law provides nearly $17 billion in incentives to promote renewable energy, carbon mitigation, alternative fuels, enhanced technology motor vehicles and energy conservation.

    “Last week’s legislation continues the Energy Policy Act of 2005′s tact of awarding tax expenditures to a wide variety of investments that can reduce carbon emissions, extending a number of provisions set to expire, expanding some and creating new ones,” said Janet Milne, director, Environmental Tax Policy Institute, Vermont Law School.

    “The tax code is increasingly becoming an energy code. But this multi-billion dollar investment is also accompanied by a small but important measure that requires the identification [of] the provisions in the tax code that most affect greenhouse gas emissions

  16. November 6th, 2008 4:26 am

    Jin Rahoo per aik Umer tere Saath Raha hoo,
    Kutch rooz se wo raste sunsaan bohat hain,

    Mil jaao kabhi, Phir loat k phir aaon na shayed,
    kamzoor ho me, Rah me tofaan bohat hain,

    Ek Tum hi nahee meri judai me pareshaan,
    Hum bhi to teri chah me veeran bohat hain,

    Ek turk-e-wafa pe me use kese bhula doo,
    Mujh pe abhi us shaqs ke ehsaan bohat hain,

    Bhar aain na aankhee to me ek baat bataaon,
    Ab tujhse bicharne k Imkaan bohat hain,


    M.Adeel Qureshi,
    Social Sciences & Huminities,
    Karachi University,
    Email: oyestermkb@yahoo.com
    Cell: 0323-2988014

  17. July 31st, 2010 5:49 pm

    zikr kertay hein tera mujh se ba-andaaz-e-jafa
    chaara-ger phool pero laaye hein talwaaroN mein
    – Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi -

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