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The Architectural Heritage of Bahawalpur

Posted on November 7, 2006
Filed Under >Roshan Malik, Architecture, Culture & Heritage, Travel
99 Comments
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Roshan Malik

Bahawalpur State (1833-1955) has a unique architecture blended with Italian style. It was comprised of three districts (Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar and Rahim Yar Khan). The last ruler Nawab Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan Abbasi V ruled the State (1907-55) before it merged into the unitary province of Pakistan. The State reached the zenith of its glory under his rule, as he transformed Bahawalpur into an excellence of learning and centre of architecture. Various schools, colleges, palaces, mosques, hospitals and a library and university were built during his time.

Since ATP readers have already been talking about Bahawalpur architecture through the Photo Quiz on Noor Mahal and then again on the Baghdad-ul-Jadeed Railway station, it makes sense to talk about this scope and history of this architectural heritage at greater length.



Sadiqgarh Palace (Sleeping Beauty Castle) is situated at Dera Nawab Sahib (Ahmedpur East), about 30 miles away from Bahawalpur, was the headquarters of the State. More than 1000 employees were deployed for the maintenance and beautification of the Palace and its lush green lawns. Nearly 100 rooms were decorated with crystal chandeliers, drapes, paintings and carpets.

After Nawab’s death, the Palace had been sealed by the government for many decades due to a dispute among heirs. Many antiques had been stolen from the Sadiqgarh Palace and were sold in cities like Lahore, Karachi and Islamabad. The building of that glory now gives a deserted and shabby look surrounded by wild shrubs. The palace desperately needs maintenance and repair for the restoration of its grandeur.

Noor Mahal and Gulzar Mahal are the most elegant buildings in Bahawalpur built in the Italian style. Both the buildings are now under the control of Army. However, the army purchased the Noor Mahal some years back by paying Rs. 120 million to the heirs. It is unique in its architecture and is splendid with beautiful lawns and driveways.

The late Nawab established various educational institutes in the State such as Islamia University Bahawalpur, Sadiq Public School Bahawalpur, Sadiq Egerton College Bahawalpur, Sadiq Dane High School Bahawalpur, Jamia Masjid al Sadiq Bahawalpur. The Central Library Bahawalpur is another landmark of Bahawalpur architecture which was built in 1924. This is the second largest library in Punjab having various manuscripts and rare books.

The famous Fort Derawar was once the capital of Bahawalpur State. It was built in thirteenth century by the Rajputs of Jaiselmer. The Nawabs of Bahawalpur conquered it in eighteenth century. It was a birth place of many Nawabs. The rulers of Bahawalpur give great importance to Derawar as their royal cemetery is near Derawar.

Derawar is about 65 miles away from Bahawalpur in Cholistan desert. The historic Derawar Fort, enormous and impressive structure in the heart of Cholistan desert, is rapidly crumbling and if the immediate preventative measures are not taken, the edifice will be destroyed and the historians, researchers and sightseers deprived of the view of the legacy of the bygone era.


The legacy of Bahawalpur state has been in ruins like many other historical places of the country. These building have potential to attract a great deal of tourists. But what the heirs and the government need is a good planning and political will. Otherwise it will turn into sands like many other forts in Cholistan like Maujgarh, Dingarh, Islamgarh and Marot.

The cluster of 6 pictures, above, includes: (1) One of the still-intact but crumbling walls of Fort Derawar, (2) Aerial view of the fort, (3) Mosque Derawar, (4) Entrance to Fort Derawar with potholes, (5) Services Club Multan, was once Rest House of Nawab of Bahawalpur, (6) Sadiq Public School, Bahawalpur.

Roshan Malik is a development practitioner from the Bahawalpur region.

99 comments posted

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  3. Ahmad Gharib Nawaz Khan says:
    January 22nd, 2014 1:28 pm

    I recall the golden days of Bahawalpur in the era 1958 on wards. Then there were few populations namely Walled City of Bahawalpur, Model Towns A & B, Basti Fauji, Basti Gari Bana (Saddar Pully), Oneunit Colony, Basti Himaitian. The canal flowing through Basti Gari Bana and Basti Fauji remained a good picnic point for the people.

    You came out of the city through Farid Gate (then Bekaneri Gate) took togas or cycle rickshaws to take you towards Basti Fauji, Basti Gari Bana or towards One-unit Colony or Basti Himaitian. Similar situation was when you came out of Ahmadpuri Gate you face Model Town ‘A’ and Sadiq Public School. Model Town B and Abbasia Cinema were out of Shikarpuri Gate and so on. Only few cars and few scooters were seen plying on the roads. Bicycles, Cycle Rickshaws and Tongas were the common way of transportation in Bahawalpur.

    Scouting activities had been in full swing in the local Schools. Regular scouting camps were arranged either in the Scouting Headquarter’s building (presently Radio Pakistan Broadcasting’s site) or in S.D. High Schoo and Technical High School Grounds. Boys Scout Parade were regularly witnessed on the eve of National Days (23rd March & 14th August). The sweets were used to be distributed among the school children on these occasions.

    Jashne Rohi had been the main event during the year. The event was arranged by the Government in Gulzare Sadiq. I remember Commissioner Mir Ajum Khan, Deputy Commissioner Malik Yazdani inaugurating the Jashne Rohi and taking salutes from the boys scouts. On one occasion Nawab Mohammad Abbas Abbasi the Amir of Bahawalpur either inaugurated or addressed the closing ceremony of the Jashne Rohi.

    Those were the glorious days of Bahawalpur. There are a lot of cars, motocycles in the city today but nothing to see the things of olden days.

    Your comments are welcome:
    gharibkhan1951@gmail.com

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