Civil Services Is No Longer An Alluring Career for Pakistanis

Posted on June 29, 2008
Filed Under >Raza Rumi, Education, Society
Total Views: 93789


Raza Rumi

A little news item that appeared a few weeks ago was ignored by our all-knowing analysts and TV channels. Reportedly, the Federal Public Service Commission failed to recruit all the vacancies that were advertised for the CSS competitive examination held in 2007. Out of 290 available posts, the number of successful candidates in the 2007 CSS competition was merely 190, leaving almost 100 vacancies unoccupied.

Pakistan CSS Civil Service

In the photo above Founder of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah is seen talking to Pakistani Civil Servants (circa 1947)

Last year, too, the government could not get enough number of successful CSS candidates to fill in the available posts and 47 vacancies could not be filled. Such instances have occurred before but given the state of unemployment this is, to put it mildly, shocking.

The truth of the matter is that entering the civil service is no longer an alluring career option for the talented young men and women of this country. Perhaps, the greatest damage to the attractiveness of the civil service came in the wake of the devolution plan that rendered the most coveted service group — District Management Group – unpalatable. Within days, the district administrators had no prescribed career-paths and that they had to be subservient to small time political cronies of the central political elites.

But this would be too simplistic an explanation. The last decade has also witnessed Pakistan’s fitful integration into the global economy resulting in expansion of private sector opportunities with higher salaries. The remuneration of a new entrant into the civil service is three times less than what a telecom company would pay to its junior employee. With money as a new god in the age of globalisation, choosing a dysfunctional civil service would make little sense.

The almost sinister destruction of the DMG and the centuries old office of the district magistrate or its historical predecessor, the mansabdar, was ahistorical and reflected the petty tensions within the Executive where the rival services viewed the DMG as an unfairly privileged elite service. The martial mind viewed the DMG as an alternative power centre that needed to be neutralised for effective capture of civilian institutions.

Today all the major civil service training academies are headed by former army men; and most poignantly the civil service reform unit in Islamabad is headed by a general as well.

It is ironical that opportunities for rent seeking have multiplied under the newly devolved structures. The District Coordination Officer, the new avatar for the erstwhile Deputy Commissioner, and his staff have a wider menu of commissions and kickbacks along with the political honchos, thereby defying the faint possibility of electoral accountability. The testimony of this comes from none else than former Chief Minister Punjab. It is therefore not the lack of ‘extra’ income that has made DMG unattractive. It is the loss of the unique service culture where the DC and his team functioned as relatively neutral state agents, mediated between the citizens and the state; and could potentially resist political influence.

From the citizens’ perspective, two immediate after-shocks haunted the local governance patterns. First, the reconfiguring of the ‘system’ led to an unbridled and unchecked police force interacting directly with citizens with remote, little supervision. Second, the absolute collapse of local citizen interest regulation, which evolved over 150 years of governing experience. There are two to three hundred local and special laws, ranging from price control to natural resource management (water, irrigation and land) and from public health (adulteration, hygiene etc.) to environmental protection (forest, wildlife, pollution etc.). This is not to say that prior to 1999 the police was supervised effectively by the district magistrate or local regulation was optimal or efficient. In fact, decades of politicisation of civil service had resulted in ugly distortions of the so-called ‘system.’

If the old system was not delivering or a colonial relic there were other ways to handle it than to throw out the sick baby with the bath water and usher in multiple patronage seekers and distributors. After all, civilian administrations in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia and in many other countries continue with local adaptation and contextualisation. Why could we not learn from our much-feared neighbour especially the way its organic growth of local institutions blends grassroots democracy with a Raj administrative steel-frame?

Whilst these systemic tremors were felt by the citizens in whose name a reform was imposed from the top, the provinces felt completely bypassed thus reincarnating the old demons of troubled federalism. Services such as health, education were meant to improve. Whilst the budgetary allocations went up, the results were nowhere to be seen as the provincial secretariats appropriated more powers and local rent-seeking replaced the earlier patterns of malfeasance.

The much touted system of police accountability through the public safety commissions was a still-born concept. It never took off at the local level as the nominees to these institutions were selected along party and patronage lines thereby eroding the capability of these bodies. Where this Commission showed some teeth, its members were the first ones to bear the brunt of police excess. The naivete of appointing the provincial police officers through a panel, desirable as it is, and ensuring that he (indeed they are all men) completes his tenure foundered at the rocks of provincial politics.

The lure of raw power was reflected in the group allocation preferences that the CSS candidates indicated from 2000 onwards. Joining the Police became the top priority of those who appeared in the competitive examination followed by Customs and Income Tax. It was the Customs group that for some time became the prized service under General Zia ul Haq when the society ought to have become more spiritual in the face of a heavy dose of dubious ‘Islamisation.’ Alas, the monetisation of 1980s; and the brutalisation of ‘governing’ have been the direct results of these authoritarian spells.

Things have come to such a pass that there aren’t enough qualified candidates, in a country of 170 million, to fill in the entry-posts. If on one hand, this trend betrays the decline of institutions, on the other it spells doom for the future of Pakistan’s governance. There can be no compromise on a capable civil service to manage and implement policies. Yes, the private sector is more attractive and perhaps is always so, what about state’s regulatory and redistributive functions? The goal of a capable state cannot be compromised nor ignored.

There is no alternative to increasing the salaries of the civil servants and making the promotion policy and work-environment more attractive. Otherwise, it is a dangerous trend that has already set in. However, it is nor irreversible.

The political parties are now calling for a revision of the devolution system and the monstrous possibility of another disruption looms large. Another ‘revolution’ will further lead to systemic jolts and ensue painful period of transition that might fuel the current climate of instability. There needs to be a two-pronged strategy: implement civil service reforms at the central level and fix the gaps of the local government systems with attention to the way provincial governments set policy and supervise local bodies. The solutions are well known to all and sundry and there is no need for another Commission or a white elephant body to carry the changes through.

If only the political parties (and corporate media) would halt posturing, stop targeting or extolling individuals and focus on institutions. The prospects of this happening are remote but this is a fast changing Pakistan. The moment is now, or perhaps, never.

-Raza also edits Pak Tea House and Lahore Nama

References and Credits:

1. A version of this post also appeared at the Daily News of June 29, 2008.
2. Title Photo is courtesy of Doctor Ghulam Nabi Kazi
3. The Group Photo is courtesy of Commer28th at
4. Civil Services of Pakistan

19 Comments on “Civil Services Is No Longer An Alluring Career for Pakistanis”

  1. Eidee Man says:
    June 30th, 2008 12:16 am

    Well-written article as usual, Raza. The people I grew up with are now entering, or have only recently entered the workplace, and they are not having a whole lot of trouble finding jobs. Like you mention in the article, I don’t think a single qualified person is considering working for the government, and with good reason. Why would smart, hard-working graduates want to work under corrupt, unqualified, and political people for a small fraction of what they could earn in a fast-paced, trendy, telecom or bank? Getting paid way below your “market value” is bad enough, but being told what to do by someone who you think is absolutely unqualified must be simply unbearable. Also, taking a stand might not just mean risking your employment status; you might end up endangering your personal safety as well (what with the likes of MQM, etc).

    The most disturbing aspect of this issue, however, is not what who are not filling these positions; it is who ARE filling them. Unfortunately, I have several acquaintances, who are either quite inferior academically, or do not have a lot of moral character, who are taking up these positions. And yes, you are right, they do tend to go for the income tax, customs, etc positions.

  2. Dr Ghulam Nabi Kazi says:
    June 30th, 2008 1:51 am

    Good points raised. I recall my late father, then a federal secretary, appeared before the Pay and Services Commission in 1976 to give his views. After giving some concrete suggestions to improve the morale of the services, he said, “Gentlemen remeber if you feed peanuts to civil servants, you will rear only monkeys”. That was 32 years ago. All the rest is history!

  3. Obi Wan Kenobi says:
    June 30th, 2008 2:12 am

    I would move back today to Pakistan if I can get a CSP job but I am 29 and can’t sit in exam(Age limit is 28). Only if govt. could relax age rule for few years (may be 30 ??) for expats who have gained education and experience in west and want to return for “country”.

  4. faisal says:
    June 30th, 2008 2:14 am

    @Eidee Man
    You forgot to mention the Mullahs of NWFP\FATA, Bugtis in Balochistan. Oh I forgot, MQM bashing is so convenient these days.

    As fas as dearth of suitable candidates goes, its a global phenomena these days, India, China and the US are going through the same tribulation.

    Most of the youth want to become nothing but MBA monkey.
    Nobody want to serve (myself included) with out getting paid in loads of money.

  5. Maryam says:
    June 30th, 2008 2:33 am

    Great article! It not only makes one think but gives a really good over-view of the situation, describing the history effectively as well. Also, a point that is left out is, civil services examination used to be one of the most competitive and tough nation-wide examinations, it was a source of pride for those who got selected. All national institutions are crumbling. There was a time when a lot of people chose army for their career and army officers were treated with awe and respect, now thats no longer the case.

    “If only the political parties (and corporate media) would halt posturing, stop targeting or extolling individuals and focus on institutions”

    Perhaps, than a turn-around is possible.

  6. friend says:
    June 30th, 2008 4:38 am

    i would like to inform faisal that civil services jobs in India are much sought after. a few lakh ppl appear in center and well as state civil services exams and a fraction are selected. of course there is about 40 odd % reservation in various catagories.

  7. Rafay Kashmiri says:
    June 30th, 2008 6:15 am

    @ Very sad affaire, system left only for abusives and
    abused, failed “masterdom” non-serving bunch of “Kahars”
    waiting to carry on their shoulders the heavey fat defunct
    corrupt in his Jenaza, alas, not a dooley with beautiful
    “National DULHAN “. Good-bye brilliant 50s and betrayed Baba, The Father of my Nation.

  8. Ahmad R. Shahid says:
    June 30th, 2008 6:48 am

    I think such things are exaggerated to make a point. The point has been made but its not the first time that any nation has gone through or is going through such tremors.

    In the hey days of the Cultural Revolution, the Mao government did away with many “relics” of the past, including the Civil Service exam, expounded by Confucius many centuries back and duly followed in letter and spirit for centuries. But with the death of Mao and coming into power of Deng Xiaoping into power, these old “relics” were revived with equal diligence.

    The thing is that if there is real need for some skill and people are not entering into it for any reason, sooner or latter there is going to be a shortage of skills and people. That would increase their value and also ultimately their monetory value, in terms of other finances or perks and privilidges, and then the employers, in this case the government, would go out for these skills with whatever they can offer just to save the things from crumbling down.

    From the post it seems that sooner or latter there would be an acute shortage of these skills and the civil service would be revived in all its “past glory”.

  9. June 30th, 2008 9:24 am

    Most of the problems which Pakistan faces in the sector of civil services is self inflicted. Once those who worked their were happy with a steady income and security. Now those who work there or are looking for work which pays a lot more than their worth because they are indoctrinated with false khudi (pride, id) that squashe service to the public mind set and me, me gets embedded in, in its place.

    Why should I work in the civil service sector and why should not I satisfy the monkey on my back called khudi. As long as there is khudi which is pushed in the little head when it is placed in the cradle from the very beginning the spirit of loc sava is crunched.

    Gone are the days when people had love for one another, gone are the days when neighbors cared for their neighbors and their things. Now everyone waits when they could swallow what others have. I pray maybe someone will come along some day, who will sow the seeds of love once again love for one’s self, love for one’s family and love for the others who are around you. Till that day we will have to harvest the seeds which were sown many moons ago in the name of self.

  10. faraz Waseem says:
    June 30th, 2008 9:35 am

    Welcome to 21st century!

    I think civil servant are kind of smart clerks and they should lower the bar for civil services examinations.

    Right now most talented youth of Pakistan want to come to USA. I think most talented should start their own companies.

  11. ShahidnUSA says:
    June 30th, 2008 3:23 pm

    @ Obi van
    Are you outta your mind? :-)
    I cannot spend one day there and you want to move. I dont know your situation but Sir, you are a brave man. Good to see you here, still in Sanfrancisco ?Do you go to tenderloin mosque for jumma prayers? I need your email address.

    Sorry readers and author. This is two Pakistani American talking. You can evesdrop to our conversation. :-) and delete it later. Thank you in advance for you patience.

  12. Qasim says:
    June 30th, 2008 4:25 pm

    I think the points you raise are valid. Yes, certainly there is less interest in the civil services now (also in the military services actually). While I worry about the quality of CSP officers falling too much, but in general I do NOT think that the BEST people in the country should be in the civil services anyhow. The civil services need generally competent an honest people, but not necessarily the best. I think it is much better for society in our most competent people go into professions, sciences, teaching, creative arts and the private sector. That will be much better for society.

  13. Eidee Man says:
    June 30th, 2008 6:33 pm


    “You forgot to mention the Mullahs of NWFP\FATA, Bugtis in Balochistan. Oh I forgot, MQM bashing is so convenient these days.”

    No, I did not. The groups you mention are not part of government in any significant number. I was obviously referring to political people who work over the civil servants.

    Also, perhaps you should consider why so many people are indeed speaking out against the MQM; I don’t think you’ll find many instances where a terrorist organization is part of government.

    “Most of the youth want to become nothing but MBA monkey.
    Nobody want to serve (myself included) with out getting paid in loads of money.”

    There’s no shame in earning money honestly. If a legally run company is willing to pay someone a good salary, then why should that person not take the job? I think one of the main problems is that young people tend to be pressured by their parents to go into what they (mistakenly) think is hot at the time.

  14. June 30th, 2008 7:15 pm

    Nice Article…

  15. Riaz Haq says:
    June 30th, 2008 10:46 pm

    I think it’s healthy to see that young people in Pakistani now have many more options beyond the civil and military service.
    We need to encourage our talented young men and women to go into business, technology, law, medicine, finance, engineering, sciences, marketing, mass communications, theater/entertainment, arts etc. for a more balanced and productive society.

  16. faisal says:
    July 1st, 2008 2:19 am

    @Eidee Man
    “No, I did not. The groups you mention are not part of government in any significant number. I was obviously referring to political people who work over the civil servants.”

    Yes you are right they are not part of the Govt., in fact, they are the Govt. in their areas and that makes them better than MQM?

    “Also, perhaps you should consider why so many people are indeed speaking out against the MQM; I don

  17. Ahmad R. Shahid says:
    July 1st, 2008 11:40 am

    True we need good people in each and every domain but there must also be jobs for those people. If people start learning creative arts or writing or whatever, and at the end of the day there are no jobs for them, that would only lead to more frustration and lesser stable society. So what professions people adopt should and always indeed depends on what they think would help them make a good living. If the government is ready to pay the civil servants what they deserve, people would start adopting it as a career, otherwise not. And there indeed is demand for skills imparted to a civil servant, he/she would have to be paid accordingly.

  18. Watan Aziz says:
    June 29th, 2010 5:04 am

    It is the loss of the unique service culture where the DC and his team functioned as relatively neutral state agents, mediated between the citizens and the state; and could potentially resist political influence.



    Take me to Disney Land!

  19. Watan Aziz says:
    June 30th, 2010 2:20 am

    The successor to ICS, is the CSP and is predecessor of DMG. ZAB’s reforms of 1973 reorganized some aspects, but much was left intact.

    Historically, these group of officers have filled more assignments than their fair share or scope. Most of the civil positions that are provincial subjects and therefore have always been part of the Provincial Civil Service officers were filled by the CSP (now DMG).

    Worse, most of the top positions wind up with retired military officers making matters worse for the provincial subjects and promotions within the provincial services.

    The top-down trend continues. Villages of all the Mai Jori Jamalis of Pakistan do not get any allocation of resources because there is no one from the local areas pleading their cases. And if the DMG officers, generally from larger cities, get the best allocation of resources, how could they even relate to the plight of Mai Jori Jamali?

    If there is one group of people who can be directly traced to the breakup of Pakistan, it is the CSP. Upon appointment to East Pakistan, they would go there and insult the Bengali brothers by talking down to them; in Urdu.

    The rest is history and commentary.

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