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Rivers and Link Canals of Punjab

Posted on October 30, 2006
Filed Under >Pervaiz Munir Alvi, Science and Technology
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Guest Post by Pervaiz Munir Alvi

The Punjab province of Pakistan is blessed with five major rivers and their numerous local tributaries. All of these five rivers originate from the snow capped peaks of the Himalayan Mountains.

After traveling hundreds of miles through the high mountain valleys, these rivers ultimately enter into the plains and plateaus of Punjab via the Frontier province of Pakistan, the State of Kashmir, and India.

In fact, Punjab owes its very name to these rivers as in Urdu/Persian languages the word simply means ‘five waters or five rivers’. Perhaps no other area in the world could claim that many major rivers flowing through it in that close proximity of each other. In that sense Punjab is unique. But what makes it further unique is its river link canal system first devised by the British in early twentieth century and then expanded by Pakistan under its Indus River Basin Water Management System. The complex Punjab Rivers and Link Canals System could very well be classified as one of the twentieth century engineering wonders.

The Indus (Sindh) is the northern and the upper most of the five rivers. The other four rivers named Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej follow the sequence. Waters of these rivers are managed through a vast system of large earthen dams and reservoirs, barrages and headworks, and, irrigation and link canals. Each river is linked to the next lower river through canals originating or ending at these waterworks and thus developing a grid of rivers and their link canals in the process.

First major storage of Indus waters takes place at Tarbela Reservoir located just north of the boundary between Punjab and the Frontier Province. From this point on all the way down to the small town of Miran, with the exception of Kalabagh and Isa Khel areas, the River Indus roughly forms the boundary between Punjab and the Frontier Province. Within this course of the river numerous tributaries descending from the eastern slopes of the adjacent mountain ranges join the Indus. Most notable are the Kabul River that joins at Jahangira and Kurram River that joins at Kondal or Isa Khel. Both of these two relatively smaller rivers originate in Afghanistan and enter Pakistan via Frontier Province.

Similarly the waters of the next lower river, Jhelum, are stored at the Mangla Reservoir located at the boundary between Punjab and Pakistan controlled part of Kashmir known as Azad Kashmir. In fact River Jhelum as a north-south axis starting from Muzzafarabad, the capital of Azad Kashmir, to the city of Jhelum in Punjab forms the western boundary of the disputed state of Kashmir with Pakistan. From the city of Jhelum to the city of Khushab, the river flows westward just below the famous Salt Range.

The plateau of Potohar forming the land mass between Indus and Jhelum in this area does not provide terrain favorable for link canals between these two rivers. As a result the first canal link between Indus and Jhelum rivers takes place pass the Salt Range via Chashma-Jhelum Link Canal originating from the rather grand Chashma Barrage on Indus River near the Town of Kundian. The first barrage at River Jhelum is located near the town of Rasul from where it is linked with the next lower river, Chenab, via Rasul-Qadirabad Link Canal. The River Jhelum ultimately falls into River Chenab near the town of Mudduki. The Trimmu Headworks on River Chenab is located at this juncture.

The River Chenab enters Punjab near the town of Akhnur in Indian held Kashmir. Marala Headworks is located at River Chenab near the town of Dhallewali. Khanki is the next headworks on River Chenab near the town of the same name. Next is the Qadirabad Barrage on River Chenab near the town of Rasulnagar. Each one of these three headworks/barrages plays a significant role in the river-canal link system in Punjab.

The next lower river, Ravi, from point Maddoke to point Sidhanwali in Punjab roughly zigzags between Pakistan and India before it is firmly inside Pakistan. The first link between Chenab and Ravi is via Marala-Ravi Link Canal and Bambanwala-Ravi-Bedian (B.R.B) Link Canal joining River Ravi at Sidhanwali above the town of Shahdara and Lahore, the capital of Punjab and one time capital of the vast Mughal Empire under Akbar the Great and then later under his son Jahangir. In fact Jahangir and his beloved Empress Noor Jahan are buried along the banks of River Ravi. The first headworks on River Ravi is at Balloki. The Upper Chenab Canal starting from Marala Headworks ultimately falls into River Ravi at Balloki Headworks. At the same time Qadirabad-Balloki Link Canal also connects the two rivers at the same location. The last canal link between Chenab and Ravi, before they merge together is via Trimmu-Sidhnai Link Canal ending at Sidhnai Barrage on River Ravi. From this merging point on the river continues under the name Chenab where Taunsa Barrage on River Indus provides the link between Indus and Chenab for the first time via Taunsa-Punjnud Link Canal near the historical city of Multan.

The last of the five rivers of Punjab roughly forms the border between Pakistan and India for several miles before it is completely inside Pakistan. The B.R.B Link Canal from River Ravi is extended to meet River Sutlej along Pakistan-India border. Sulaimanke is the first headworks on River Sutlej. Here Ravi and Sutlej are linked for the second time via Balloki-Sulaimanke Link Canal. While Islam Headworks, also on Sutlej, does not provide any link, the next and the last link between Ravi and Sutlej takes place at Mailsi via Sidhnai-Mailsi Link Canal. Ultimately the River Sutlej joins the River Chenab and together form a body of water commonly known as Punjnad. A headworks of the same name is placed at this monumental location. Just below the Punjnad Headworks the waters from the lower four rivers would join the Indus River to complete the merger of the five rivers and their tributaries. From this point on the story of the five waters and their link canals in Punjab is passed on to the, one and only, mighty Indus River that would continue its journey through the Sindh Province of Pakistan till it will empty itself into the Arabian Sea.

Punjab Rivers and barrages/headworks (total=12):
Indus: Chashma, Taunsa
Jhelum: Rasul
Chenab: Marala, Khanki, Qadirabad, Trimmu
Ravi: Balloki, Sidhnai
Sutlej: Sulaimanke, Islam
Punjnad: Punjnad

River link canals in Punjab and rivers linked (total=10):

Chashma-Jhelum Link – Indus-Jhelum
Taunsa-Punjnad Link – Indus-Chenab
Rasul-Qadirabad Link – Jhelum-Chenab
Marala-Ravi Link – Chenab-Ravi
Bambanwala-Ravi-Bedian Link – Chenab-Ravi-Sutlej
Upper Chenab-Balloki Link – Chenab-Ravi
Qadirabad-Balloki Link – Chenab-Ravi
Trimmu-Sidhnai Link – Chenab-Ravi
Balloki-Sulaimanke Link – Ravi-Sutlej
Sidhnai-Mailsi Link – Ravi-Sutlej

Pervaiz Munir Alvi is a Ravian and trained as a Civil and Geo-technical Engineer.

50 Comments on “Rivers and Link Canals of Punjab”

  1. Samdani says:
    October 30th, 2006 1:48 pm

    The picture at the top is quite spectacular. I guess its a computer-generated depiction of the Indus?

  2. Roshan Malik says:
    October 30th, 2006 3:07 pm

    I believe that we have one of the best canal infrastructure in our country.
    Very informative post!!!

    I think we need to evaluate the environmental costs of Mega Water projects for sustainable development. Lot of areas once fertile are barren due to water logging and salinity caused by these projects. Displacement of communities is another important issue, which should be given top priority, as the communities affected by the construction of Terbela Dam are still suffering.
    I think, World Commission on Dams has established wonderful guidelines before the initiation of Mega projects. Terbala Dam is taken as one of the case studies in that report.

  3. Daktar says:
    October 30th, 2006 5:07 pm

    I had heard the term many times but had not realized that a LINK canal actually links RIVERS and not other canals. That is a pretty impressive engineering feat.

  4. Zainab L says:
    October 30th, 2006 5:34 pm

    oh Lord, geography!
    God bless :P

  5. Pervaiz Munir Alvi says:
    October 30th, 2006 6:17 pm

    “oh Lord, geography! God bless”

    Zainab L: I am afraid it is more than geography. As the good Daktar said, “That is a pretty impressive engineering feat”. And also as Roshan Malik writes, “I believe that we have one of the best canal infrastructure in our country”. But if the essay helps ones geography of Pakistan, that’s fine too.

  6. October 30th, 2006 6:22 pm

    [...] Rivers and Link Canals of Punjab at All Things Pakistan The Punjab province of Pakistan is blessed with five major rivers and their numerous local tributaries. All of these five rivers originate from the snow capped peaks of the Himalayan Mountains. [...]

  7. bhupinder says:
    October 30th, 2006 6:54 pm

    I wonder why despite sharing the rivers, India and Pakistan don’t seem to fight over water (they seem to be fighting over practically everything else).

    Within India, I assure you, states are at loggerheads- if not at each other’s throats- on the question of water and the Indian side of the Punjab has a water table constantly going down.

    Anyone has any ideas on why India and Pakistan don’t fight over this issue?

  8. Fawad says:
    October 30th, 2006 8:15 pm

    Bhupinder: Water has caused fewer overt hostilities in recent history because of the biggest success of Indo-Pak diplomacy (supported by the World Bank); the Indus Water Treaty of 1960 (excellent case study of the treaty here

    However, there are issues of water already on the Indo-Pak conflict agenda: Wuller Barrage being built by India on the River Jehlum is the current hot dispute (Pakistan believes that this barrage deprives it of its share of water from the Jehlum under the Treaty). As the arbiter of the Indus water treaty, a world bank technical expert is already involved in trying to resolve the issue after India and Pakistan failed to come to mutual agreement.

    I personally think water will be an increasingly bitter source of conflict between India and Pakistan in the future. Water is becoming scarcer in South Asia, populations are growing fast and storage infrastructure has not kept up due to political opposition and lack of governmental resolve in both countries. This will continue to keep Kashmir the flashpoint of conflict (as the key source of water not just a battleground for ideology).

    I recently saw a news report somewhere that CIA believes water (not oil) will be the single biggest source of conflict and wars in the 21st century. Hopefully the world will start to pay attention to this problem early but who can be optimistic of governmental foresight.

  9. Eidee Man says:
    October 30th, 2006 8:34 pm

    @bhupinder, there were major water treaties signed between Pakistan and India some time back. Also, frankly, I think the Indian press is much too OBSESSED with internal Pakistani affairs having to do with terrorism.

    Just today I was browsing newspaper headlines on Google and I was disgusted to see the Indian papers’ reports on the military operation on the madrassa. Almost all of them reported on the incident and went on to criticise Pakistan for not doing enough!! It seems like the Indian media is having a hard time trying to produce enough “news” for a population accustomed to the absurdities of Bollywood.

  10. October 30th, 2006 8:35 pm

    Bhupinder, following on Fawad’s resposne, inter-provincial water disputes in Pakistan are as – if not more – complex and heated in Pakistan too. This is to be expected when provincial and national economies are as tied to water as they are in these countries. In particular, the construnction of new water structures have been contentious and acrimonious for political, economic, environmental and technical reasons.

    In terms of India-Pakistan relations, the Indus Water Treaty remains the single most effective instrument negotiated between the two countries; partly – I have argued elsewhere – BECAUSE the Indus water is so important to both sides. In fact, recent disputes over water structures on the Indian side proves the VITALITY of the treaty, because the dispute is being resolved within the treaty framework. This Treaty has survived even the lowest moments in India-Pakistan relations and is widely credited in the literature on South Asian politics and well as that on international negotiations as a model instrument.

    With apologies for self-promotion, essential aspects of this issue are discussed at length in my book Environment, Development and Human Security: Perspectives from South Asia, especialy in the chapter on Water in South Asia which was written by Ramaswamy Iyer, former Secretary Water, Government of India.

  11. October 30th, 2006 8:46 pm

    Fawad, while water has been a source of dispute and contention through the centuries, the sensationalist ‘water war’ thesis of the 1980s and early 1990s has largely been discredited, partly through the work of Aaron Wolf.

    The work of many authors, including myself, suggests that increasing water stress (in terms of quality as well as quantity) has the potenial to create and exacerbate conflicts, but most importantly at the local level (in both sides of the Punjab, for example, water related conflicts are amongst the most common causes of reported violent crime). In terms of inter-state conflict, while the sceptre of ‘water wars’ is often raised by journalists in relation to the Middle East as well as South Asia, in my book on South Asia (see above, Environment, Development and Human Security: Perspectives from South Asia) our 13 South Asian authors came to the conclusion that the prospects of a ‘water war’ in the region were very slim (if only because these countries have so much else to fight over! ;-) ), but water disputes will be exacerbated by other ongoing disputes.

  12. Ibrahim says:
    October 30th, 2006 9:15 pm

    Punjab from “Paanch Aab”, I suppose — Interesting essay..

  13. bhupinder says:
    October 30th, 2006 9:57 pm

    Fawad: Thanks. I particularly liked this insight:

    “This will continue to keep Kashmir the flashpoint of conflict (as the key source of water not just a battleground for ideology).”

    Eidee Man: I agree that the (Indian) media should also teach the two countries to fight over other things, besides the issue of terrorism. Fighting over the same issue can become boring besides having a potential adverse impact on the circulation of newspapers.

    Adil: Thanks, as always, for your deep insights. Someone should write about the success of this diplomacy (as Fawad has pointed out.)

    As a layman, I still find it a silver lining on the proverbial dark cloud. Perhaps there are elements in the Indus Water Treaty that can generalized.

  14. mansoor says:
    October 31st, 2006 1:40 am

    God!! that felt like a Pakistan Studies lesson!!! i almost started memorising the names of the various barrages and stuff!!!

    good post btw :D very informative :D

  15. Pervaiz Munir Alvi says:
    October 31st, 2006 9:36 am

    “Punjab from “Paanch Aabâ€

  16. Owais Mughal says:
    October 31st, 2006 1:01 pm

    As always great post Alvi sahib. Looks like you’ve been working for agricultural department.
    In my life time so far I’ve got chance to visit Marala, Balloki, Panjnad and Taunsa barrages. Panjnad takes the cake among all. It is indeed the largest one. One can clearly distinuish water of different rivers by their different color. Before the national highway N5 was re-aligned through Bahawalpur, all the upcountry traffic used to go through Panjnad headworks and reach Multan via Muzaffargarh. This was before 1985. I’ve had numerous chances of passing through Panjnad headworks in my childhood. It used to be one of our much awaited milestones on our way to Multan from Karachi by road.

  17. Pervaiz Munir Alvi says:
    October 31st, 2006 3:14 pm

    “As always great post Alvi sahib. Looks like you’ve been working for agricultural department.”

    Owais: I actually receive my inspirations from folks like yourself, Major Shirazi and Dr. Najam. But thanks anyway. No, I have never worked in Pakistan, not for any department. My fascination with rivers and river-works started very early on when our parents used to take us by train to Chaman in Baluchistan to visit our uncles there. The train would go through shuffling of compartments at Rohri junction in order to reassemble for its onward journey to Quetta. We would anxiously wait for the next event of our journey as crossing River Indus via magnificent British time Rohri-Sukhar bridge in the wee morning hours was a pure rush of adrenalin for me. I was hooked. Visiting and studying river-works came much later in life.

  18. Owais Mughal says:
    October 31st, 2006 3:23 pm

    Pervaiz sahib. I also have similar experiences as yourself. On my road and rail tours across Pakistan I always used to wait for bridges, rivers etc as milestones and always used to get fascinated by them.
    Your knowledge and research on Pakistani canals and waterworks is so thorough that I really thought you worked in agriculature department :)

  19. Farrukh says:
    October 31st, 2006 4:33 pm

    The irrigation system is quite an engineering achievement but as some have already mentioned let us not forget the environmental and social costs of some of these projects, including the ones being considered. Nature does not like to be messed with too much.

  20. Pervaiz Munir Alvi says:
    October 31st, 2006 5:05 pm

    “Your knowledge and research on Pakistani canals and waterworks is so thorough that I really thought you worked in agriculature department”

    Owais: Construction and maintenance of river dams and reservoirs, spillways and power house, barrages, head works and canals are civil, electrical and mechanical engineering projects. In civil engineering they come under the specific disciplines of structural, hydraulics, geo-technical and even irrigation. Agriculture department is the end user of these facilities.

  21. Pervaiz Munir Alvi says:
    November 1st, 2006 9:08 am

    Farrukh: All engineering projects have downside to them. One has to weigh the pluses and minuses of these projects. The relative economic prosperity, the power of the feudal lords, and the bulging population of Punjab, all ultimately are due to these rivers, canals and the land that goes with them. You are right, “Nature does not like to be messed with too much”. But the choice of do nothing will have its own consequences. Population control is one answer, but then again the ignorance of our people comes in the way. That’s why I say that education is the answer.

  22. !!!SuNnY!!! says:
    December 17th, 2006 6:33 am

    [quote comment="6044"]oh Lord, geography!
    God bless :P[/quote]……
    ya i also believe that geography is such an boring subject its studieng as like as crossing a Big Sea.

  23. June 10th, 2007 2:35 pm

    can any body give email address of tech school at Rasul,I am lookong for very old info circa1920 around

  24. basit says:
    August 30th, 2007 12:51 pm

    Wow…wat a geography…
    dats wat makes us think abt da nature nd da 1 whoz controlling all dat…Mashallah.

  25. Trish says:
    October 28th, 2007 4:53 am

    Trish:
    My father worked as a civil engineer, originally on the Sidhnai Barrage Project from its conception until completion; and later at Marala Barrage with a small firm of English consulting engineers. I have nothing but happy memories of my early childhood in Pakistan, from 1953 through until my father’s end of contract in 1968. From Lahore we would travel far up in to the beautiful himalayas, to places one can now only dream of visiting. Your country and its surrounds filled me with such pleasure and delight, I will treasure my memories for always.
    My husband, an Australian, spent 5 years in the early 70′s, travelling mainly alone, through Bhutan, Kashmir, Nepal, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India and we are very lucky to have much film and slides he took during his travels.
    It is such a shame that our (now adult) children can only experience travel to many of these parts of the world via photographs through souvenirs, postcards, and visions such as yours, displayed on the internet. So sad. Our world is becoming smaller and smaller, and more and more unsafe! Our young people are exploring less and less – for scientific research, as teachers, young professionals, aid agencies, etc etc.
    Australia is now my home (since 1976) and we suffer much the same precarious problems with water shortage that Pakistan must do.
    Interestingly, I remember my father commenting on what a wonderful addition to Pakistan the Indus River Irrigation Scheme would be for the future of its people.
    Yes, ignorance can be bliss.
    We Australians, too, prided ourselves in the construction of the Snowy Mountains River Project. The “Snowy River” now flows as a mere trickle. The Sydney City Metropolitan Warragamba Dam also pales in significance due to a huge increase in Sydney’s population, due mainly to migration.
    We are, however, trying to work towards a “greener”, more sustainable future, but it is a VERY slow process, and expensive!
    I work in a government high school which was completed in 2003. We harvest all the rain that falls on its roofs. All the buildings have wide overhang verandahs, and all walkways from building to building (including to the students’ bus collection bay at the front gate) are covered, harvesting the rain. All downpour flows into gutters and downpipes, which collects in huge underground tanks.
    A large, trial, wind turbine has been installed with a view to pumping the water around the grounds. There is also a large dam/pond on the property which accommodates overflow from the tanks.
    I think this is what we need to look towards for our future generation, because water is becoming so precious that without it, naturally, we cannot exist.
    “Water Gives Life
    Don’t Waste a Drop”.
    Thank you for your interesting article.

  26. Rafay Kashmiri says:
    October 28th, 2007 6:26 am

    Alvi Sahib,

    Fantastic blog, wonderful punjab, paradise on earth

    ( after Kashmir) the whole region should be classified

    as piece of Paradise, but the UNO people should be

    given a shocking reminder,

    Indus has its “Mimbah” in one of the tibetain lake

    called Manosarawar, quite unknown to many.

    I had the opportunity to be around these areas you

    have exposed, even the sun is different there, the

    land scape, water, perfumed air, healthy faces,

    oh Punjab !!!

    filbadih arz hay:

    Aiy Husn teray jalv main, rehti hay jo dunya
    punjab jo day husn, banti hay phir ussay dunya

  27. ayesha sajid says:
    October 28th, 2007 10:36 am

    The article was interesting but the post by Trish was outstandingly so !
    i found my self wanting to re read the memories of the lady from down under.

  28. S.Hashim Raza Shah says:
    December 5th, 2007 3:29 am

    Pakistan is a paradise it is beautiful gift of God for undeserving peoples.we should keepit clean and Green

  29. April 21st, 2008 5:10 am

    SOIL MOISTURE ESTIMATION FROM STAELLITE IMAGERY

    ABSTRACT

    Site specific farming requires better understanding of variability in soil moisture patterns in order to the detection of suitable soils for zero-till wheat cultivation in Gujranwala, Pakistan. It is a resource conservation technology because in rice-wheat cropping rotation, the land preparation for irrigated rice includes wet tillage (puddling), which forms plow pan below the puddled layer due to physical compaction. Although the compact layer in the puddled rice-field saves water by reducing its transmission through the soil profile, it causes a delay in attaining soil moisture level suitable for wheat cultivation after rice harvest. Zero-till wheat cultivation saves the time of land preparation for sowing and as a result achieve higher yield. For the suitable area detection for zero till cultivation soil moisture estimation is important. Conventional methods that use point measurement to estimate soil moisture are representing only the local area and don

  30. Mansoor says:
    August 6th, 2008 3:34 am

    Indus is not part of the origin of the word Punjab. The five rivers of Punjab are Jehlum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas. Just because Beas merges into Sutlej within India, we should not start distorting history (and geography!) by forcing/adopting Indus as the fifth river of the “land of five rivers”. Geographically, Punjab remains the land of five rivers west of Indus despite the partition of Punjab into east and west.

  31. Mansoor says:
    August 6th, 2008 3:38 am

    Sorry, I meant east of Indus!

  32. jeet Riar says:
    December 23rd, 2008 8:42 pm

    I have heard that with India blocking river Ravi and Sutlej,
    some parts of Shahiwal & Multan have suffered due to
    lack of water. Is this true ? Can somebody give some more info.
    I was born in that region and I would appreciate any
    helpful information.

    Thank you and Rab Rakha.

    Jeet

  33. Watan Aziz says:
    December 24th, 2008 11:09 pm

    This view of Indus is truly stunning. The sky so magnificent, the mountains – endless, the river – untamed. And without time.

    I hope we can get more aerial photography of the beauty of Pakistan, not that the ground view is without grace. And certainly not without the generous and hospitable people of Pakistan. (Never mind the press; they need to make money. And bad news sells.)

    My grandfather worked on the Rasul head works before the Independence and my father along with his brothers spent part of their childhood there. Their stories (tall tales, I would say) always fascinated me of life without time and care. Of limitless quantities of mangoes with ‘kachi lassi’.

    Growing up and looking back, Mark Twain’s Huckberry and Tom Sawyer had a similar fascination for me for the life along the Mississippi.

    Years later, my college days, I had the pleasure of renting an apartment with a caddy corner view to the illustrious Twain’s House.

    It

  34. June 30th, 2009 10:12 am

    punjand is good palace for picnic and there meet five river like nmae of punjab. its a good plce for boating i invite all pakistanies and foreign peoples to see this place

  35. Muhammad Amin says:
    November 11th, 2009 4:07 am

    punjab is my provence .it is very beatutiful place. in it there are five river and much canal for erigation.

  36. Muhammad Amin Ansari says:
    November 11th, 2009 4:10 am

    Punjab is very beatutiful place. In it there are five river and much canal for erigation.A lot of lake form boting here. I love my provence

  37. M.AKRAM KHAN NIAZI says:
    February 13th, 2010 7:50 am

    Government of Punjab has chronically failed in protecting the rights of people of Punjab. Which is evident from the fact that it has not made any efforts for the construction of Kalabagh Dam while Govt of Sind is very proactive even in wasting the water of river Indus in Arabian sea.If Punjab govt can not protect the rights of people living alongside river Indus,it will BE better to separate out those areas from Punjab,so that those people can protect their rights themselves. From NFC award it is evident that Punjab Govt has sacrificed the rights of people just for pleasing those who always hate punjab. Moreover Punjab Govt has not raised any concern about the suffering of people of Punjab in Baluchistan,Karachi and Sind. Thar coal project will have adverse effects on each and every living organism,atmosphere,enviroment in Punjab but Punjab Govt foolish leaders has not shown any concern about that project.

    Due to incompetent Punjab Government , situation has so much deteriorated that other provinces which are very vocal about Provincial autonomy are interfering in the affairs of Punjab by violating provincial autonomy of Punjab , for example Sindh Province Government and Assembly has started to give suggestions to Punjab that which Canal should be kept opened or closed, which Dam (hydrel project ) should be constructed or not, and which land of Punjab should be cultivated or not, while Punjab Government is completely silent about such interference, while Sindh Government is busy in wasting River Indus water in Arabian sea which is a sin and crime against humanity but Punjab government is making no objection about such wastage.

  38. Abdul Nisar says:
    March 7th, 2010 1:27 am

    Pakistan. Pakistani. Pakistaniat is insignia of encourgmet and patriotism,so i pray for all of u and our beautiful country PAKISTAN ZINDA BAD

  39. Yasir Bilal says:
    May 12th, 2010 2:33 am

    It is not my desired data

  40. mohammad ilyas says:
    July 22nd, 2010 11:22 am

    I am astonished to read the first para of the Topic written by Mr. Alavi. He has described the river sindh as the fifth river of The Punjab. The fifth river of The Punjab as far as I was made to beleive in my primary classes is the river Bias which does not enter The Pakistani Punjab and ends its journey in The Indian Punjab. Mr. Alavi is an Engineer and Ravian also. I wonder that how a ravian and a Punjabi can forget the fifth river of The Punjab. will he rectify the mistake in his research paper?Thanks a lot. I gathered a lot of information from this article.

  41. Muhammad Saleem says:
    July 27th, 2010 6:25 am

    Punjab is very good place for agricultural point of view.There are many fields have loop for growing the country.The former of paunjab can grow many crops due to five river and their kanal system.So i can say that my provence is very beautiful and great.

  42. Mohan Singh Buttar says:
    August 13th, 2010 4:51 pm

    eeoneI was born at chak 65-4L in Sahiwal District on 5th April 1947. The same year partition took place and I migrated to Punjab India. I heard about the canal irrigation from my parents. Today I am very happy to know about the system through this web site. I pray God all prosperity to the people of my homeland. Can someone let me know the location of my birth place i.e 65 chak because no one of my parents is alive to tell me? I have an eager desire to see my birth place.

  43. Mohan Singh Buttar says:
    August 13th, 2010 4:56 pm

    eeoneI was born at chak 65-4L in Sahiwal District on 5th April 1947. The same year partition took place and I migrated to Punjab India. I heard about the canal irrigation from my parents. Today I am very happy to know about the system through this web site. I pray God all prosperity to the people of my homeland. Can someone let me know the location of my birth place i.e 65 chak because no one of my parents is alive to tell me? I have an eager desire to see my birth place.my Email buttarmohan@yahoo.com

  44. rasolbux says:
    February 2nd, 2011 10:32 pm

    It is not fair that more canal drawn from sindh to other rivers as chshma jehlam link tp link and more dams on one river indus what is aim ….to destroy all sindh completely…..as desert its more than 5000 years histry assosiated with this sindh river why …why…punjab is bieng be vicked for old nation that have colaborate to make pakistan first here what is pakistaniat……

  45. FARRUKh says:
    March 21st, 2011 2:08 am

    neithr punjab nor sindh is destroying each othr. but acoording to World Bank’s recent studies, Pakistan will swere shortage of water and ma become semi desert (including Punjab & Sindh). As India is constructing 52 dams on Jehlum, 24 on Chinab and 18 on Indus (Sindh0. So wake up Pakistan. If dont ???? U will be sleeped forever………

  46. zafar iqbal says:
    April 18th, 2011 5:28 pm

    i ws going 2 gv interview of zilladar so i need much 2 know about da punjab rivers canals nd irrigation system.i got every thing here.nw m confident over it nd hopful 2 success.thaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaanxxxxxxxxxxx a looooooooooooooooooooooooooooooot

  47. June 30th, 2011 2:40 am

    once they were the beauty of the Pakistan and we are distorting them day by day do read quran and learn Islam

  48. muhammad shoaib says:
    August 28th, 2011 4:15 pm

    if we manage the water of these river we have green revolution but unfortunately we are laking leadership who is not eating harram.evry leader comes and eat our sources people should concious of their leader so we get good leader.
    allhamdullilla we r rich in sources.dont worry.just worry about leadership.

  49. ahmad hasan says:
    October 20th, 2011 10:31 pm

    ALHAMDOLLILAH Pakistan is rich in every blessing of ALLAH THE ALMIGHTY. It is the tragedy of our nation that we could not get the sincere leadership. Every leader who governed Pakistan only passed the time. It was the military leadership only who could build the reservoir. they could not build the reservoir due to lack of courage. Musharraf had no courage and no decision power. He was the only person who could break through the Pakistan economy. His blunder mistake put all the Pakistan nation into endless load shading

  50. November 26th, 2011 4:33 pm

    just wao information.

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