The Karachi Tramway of Yesteryears

Posted on September 14, 2007
Filed Under >Owais Mughal, History
78 Comments
Total Views: 59279

Share

Owais Mughal
There was a time when citizens of Pakistan were accustomed to seeing Trams running all over the Karachi City center. It was one of the most popular means of conveyance in the city center. Today, only a handful of photos, a few landmarks and memories of Trams remain.

If you talk to any body who has seen Karachi up to 1975, they will talk about the tramways in nostalgic terms. The network was closed down in 1975 after traffic congestion in Saddar area was causing lots of traffic accidents involving Trams as well as older trams were proving difficult to maintain. What happened to the rolling stock and infrastructure is anybody’s guess. I couldn’t find any information on it. Growing up in Karachi however, I remember taking rides in Trams with my father as well as seeing the left over tram tracks which were left to rust in Saddar roads until 1980s.

Tram Car Number 139

This photo is courtesy of Mr. Arshad Kazmi

The history of Karachi tramway spans 90 years (1885-1975). It owes it origin to the Municipal Secretary and Engineer, James Strachan who first conceived the idea for a Karachi Tramway. In 1881, Mr. Edward Mathews of London submitted the tender for building this tramway network. It took until 1883 to complete all the formalities and to get Government’s permission to use Steam as the locomotive power for the trams. Actual construction work started in October 1884.

Track Gauge of Karachi Tramway was 4 feet.

The Inaugural Ceremony

On April 10, 1885 the first tram line in Karachi was opened for public traffic. The track extended from present day Jinnah (then Napier Mole) bridge to Kimari.

This photo above shows Tram Car # 130. The photo is courtesy of Mr. Arshad Kazmi

An imposing ceremony was held on this occasion. The dignitaries who attended the ceremony included Commissioner Sindh, Henry Napier B Erskine, Commanding Officer of Sindh District, Brigadier General G. Luck and his daughter, Assistant Commissioner Dr. J. Pollen and His Highness Prince Shere Ali Khan, ex-Wali of Kandhar, Afghanistan, with his staff. All these people were transported to Kimari and then back to Scotch Church on a convoy of Steam Locomotives and using the tramway track which they were going to inaugurate. The marquees of the project had been erected at the Scotch Church. Refreshments were given to the attendees here and Commissioner Sindh in his speech pointed out that Karachi Tramway was the “first steam tramway in Western India.” He also pointed out that the tramway was going to be used for passenger as well as freight service.

The tramway was needed for freight service as Karachi Port was not deep enough in those days. Ships were anchored at present day Kimari area and from there freight was brought to Merewether Pier (Present day Jinnah Bridge/Native Jetty area) by small boats. For this purpose some tram rails were laid in the Godowns of Messrs. Ralli Bros. A. McHinh & Co., Volkart Bros., and others, and also along the jetty, so that grain might be transported directly from their warehouses to the boat’s side.

Tramway Map of 1893

The Map below shows Karachi of 1893. The Red rectangle towards left shows the first tramway track that was inaugurated. Also note how Karachi landscape has changed since then. Kimari is now part of the mainland as sea has receded a lot as well as land reclamation that has happened in the last 100 years. See where ‘bridge’ is written on a railway line towards bottom. This is where present day Boat-Basin is located.

Steam Locomotion got Replaced with Horses

In 1886, steam powered trams got replaced by horse drived tramways. This was to the great satisfaction of city residents because the steam engines proved to be too noisy in the residential and commercial areas. The frequency of Steam trams was once every 15 minutes in busy areas and that made the residents quite uneasy because of the noise. After horse trams were introduced, Steam trams were relegated to shunting in depots only whereas light one-horse tram cars took their space on Karachi roads.

The photo to the left is an earlier version of horse-driven Karachi tram which used two horses.

Horse trams were much cheaper to operate as compared to the steam locomotives fired with coke. The coke had to be shipped from England at a great expense, as Karachi could not afford any supplies, and in Bombay local demands required the whole output of the gas works. Present day Sindh including the city of Karachi were under Bombay Presidency until 1912.

To date, there are some remains of water troughs near Max Denso Hall area as well as in Saddar which were built to feed and provide water to the tram horses.

The East India Tramway Company

Very soon the horse driven tramways became bigger than ever. Some of carriages were converted to light railways and the tramway started moving not only passengers but also freight across the city by using petrol engines. See Photo below. It is courtesy of Mr. Arshad Kazmi. It shows a petrol powered tram. The handwritten caption under the photo reads as:

The First Petrol Tram in the World - Karachi 1910. 46 seat —- type. 8 miles per gallon with petrol at 4 annas per gallon. Weight unloaded 3 tons. Designed by John Abbot, Chairman with J.P. Abbot Longfellow. Power unit —– valveless —– and Dixon Abbot patent Gearbox.

The company was now titled as ‘The East India Tramways Company’. The chief engineer of the East India Tramway Company was John Brunton, whose name was long known in Karachi in connection with the Karachi-Kotri railway line which was constructed under his supervision.

The permanent way materials for the Karachi tram network was supplied by Messrs. Bolling and Lowe of London. The weight of the rails used in the tramway was 70 lb(32 kg) to the yard. The engines of the tramway were supplied by Messrs. Kitson and Co. of Leeds, the rolling-stock was supplied by the Starbuck Car and Wagon Company, of Birkenhead and the contractors who carried out the construction work were Messrs. Mathews and Crawford.

The photo below shows a section of the tram tracks laid on Bundar Road (now called Mohammad Ali Jinnah Road) near Max Denso Hall area. This photo is circa 1900.

The career of Karachi tramway for freight business was short lived. Regular Railways took over the frieght business on the route from Napier Mole Bridge (now Jinnah Bridge) to Kimari.

In 1949, the whole system of Karachi tramway was shifted from the East India Tramways Company Limited to the Mohamedali Tramways Company (MTC). The tram company was bought by a Karachi resident Mr. Sheikh Mohammad Ali. MTC continued to operate the trams until its final closure in 1975.

Looks like all was not well in next few years. The service and cleanliness had seem to have deteriorated. In a book called ‘Karachi 1839-1947′ written by a Karachiite educationalist, Musician, School Principal and Social Worker Behram Sohrab H.J. Rustomji (1912-2002) in 1952, he writes:

The tramcars of Karachi have rendered yeoman service. But it is time they were removed. It is high time every part of the city was served by a service which we trust will be as clean and as efficient as that of the East India Tramway Co. of Karachi or better still of the BEST of Bombay.

Karachi Tram Video:
Here is a short 50 second video on Karachi Tramway which I made by combining the photos that I have available as well as a short video clip.

Chronology of Karachi Tramway

1879: John Brunton devised a special grooved bridge rail of inverted U-shape for four foot gauge horse to be later used in the tramways in Karachi.

1881: Karachi’s Municipal Secretary and Engineer, Mr. James Strachan conceived the idea of Karachi Tramway around this year and Mr Edward Mathews, of London tendered for the construction of the line in 1881.

February 8, 1883: Detailed plan for Karachi Tramway is made and settled. Permission is obtained from the Government for the use of steam powered trams in Karachi.

October 1884: Work starts on the construction of Karachi Tramway. Gauge of the track was 4 feet. John Brunton, formerly Chief Engineer of the Sind-Punjab and Delhi Railway, and engineer to the city of Oxford Tramways becomes the Chief Engineer of Karachi Tramway Project.

April 20, 1885: Steam Tramway was opened in Karachi. There was a ceremonial opening of the Main Line from Scots Kirk neat St Andrew’s Church (located on present day Abdullah Haroon Road and Shara-e-Liaqat intersection) to Kiamari. Goods line between McLeod Road (now I.I. Chundrigar Road) and Native Jetty were also completed. Steam traction with Kitson Locomotives was used for all traffic.

1886: Steam tramway of Karachi got replaced by horse-drawn tramway for both passenger and goods service.

1891-1900: During this period the Lawrence Road (now called Nishtar Road) route was opened. Also a short extension from Scots Kirk to Empress Market was opened. Exact dates are unknown.

The above photo is circa 1900 and it shows a tram near Max Denso Hall on then Bandar (now M.A.Jinnah) Road. Clicking on above photo will take you to its parent website and a larger image

1902: East India Tramway Co (E.I.T.C) Limited which was running trams in Karachi got re-organized with John Abbot as Chairman.

circa 1904: Light Steel-framed horse carts were introduced on the tramway.

March 23, 1905: Petrol Tram was inaugurated in Karachi.

1907: John Dixon was appointed as an Experimental Engineer on the Tramway.

1909: Horse drawn tramway of Karachi got shut down and was replaced by Petrol driven trams. Petrol trams had a capacity of 46 passengers each and could run up to speeds of 18 mph. Tracks were re laid for petrol driven trams.

The First two petrol-engined tramcars were built and tested in England and entered service in Karachi. These cars were the joint design of John Abbott and his son John Dixon Abbott, incorporating the Dixon-Abbott patent gearbox.

See photo of this petrol car above under the heading The East India Tramway Company.

1911: Mainline Tracks were doubled.

September 30, 1911: Frere Street (now called Dr Daud Pota Road) Route was Opened.

February 1912: Horse traction was completely suspended by the petrol motor cars

1913: By the end of this year, the number of Petrol run trams in Karachi was 37

February 17, 1916: Soldier Bazaar Route was inaugurated via Mansfield Street (now called Syedna Burhanuddin Road).

1928: Kerbside loading introduced at the Boulton Market.

October 22, 1928: Chakiwara Route was opened.

1929: Soldier Bazaar route diverted from Mansfield Street (now called Syedna Burhanuddin Raod) to Bunder Road (now M.A. Jinnah Road)

1931: Temporary Extension was made Eastward from Soldier Bazaar, especially for the Indian Nationalist Congress meeting. The Rails were removed after the meeting ended.

1945: First New-Built Diesel cars were introduced. Diesel engines were introduced into some existing cars before 1939.

1949: Transfer of the whole system from the East India Tramways Company Limited to the Mohamedali Tramways Company (MTC). The tram company was bought by a Karachi resident Mr. Sheikh Mohammad Ali. MTC continued to operate the trams until its final closure in 1975.

April 30, 1953: This news appeared in the daily Hindu about a strike at MTC:

A large number of workers of the Karachi Tramways in Pakistan had gone on strike to protest against what they called “the management’s policy of retrenchment and victimization.” About 700 striking employees were taken into custody. Labour leaders claimed that all but 80 employees had joined the strike. Only a few of the green and white painted trams were running in the capital city. Police lathi charged a large group of 800 employees who were picketing outside the gate of the premises of the Tramway Company.

1955: The number of Petrol Run Trams in Karachi had risen up to 64. These 64 cars were numbered from 94 to 157.

These were single deck 4-wheeled back-to-back cross bench cars.
These cars had 8 ft wheel base,
they were 28 feet long,
and 6 feet 8 inches wide.

These cars were built between 1924 and 1948. They were equipped with Perkins P.4 Diesel Engines and Simplex (Dixon-Abbott) Gearboxes.

Cars Number 145 to 157 were built as new Diesel Cars; The remained were converted from Petrol cars to Diesel Cars.

April 30, 1975: Karachi Tramway got closed down.

Two Historic Photos of Karachi Trams

Following two photos are circa 1900 and showa glimpse of Karachi trams. First photo is near Max Denso Hall. Clicking on these photos will take you to their parent website and a larger image.

In the following photo the back of a horse driven tram can be seen to the left. The photo is from outside Karachi Cantonment Railway Station.

The following photo is courtesy of Zain Yoonas. It shows a tram on Bandar Road (now M.A.Jinnah Road) in 1933.

Following photo is courtesy of PPL and published by Dawn in their ‘all about Lifestyle’ series. It shows Saddar area circa 1950s and towards left, one can see atleast two trams. The signboard towards top right corner of the photo reads ‘Nishat Hotel’. Any reader who is familiar with Saddar of 50s and this Nishat Hotel locality should enlighten us more about this photo.

Route Map of Karachi Tramway in 1950:

On 70th anniversary of Karachi Tramway in 1950, following was the route map of this network. Make sure to click on the individual photos below to get their larger and more readable images.

Tram Car Number 128

This photo is courtesy of Mr. Arshad Kazmi

References:

(1) Kurrachee, Past, Present, Volume II and Future by Alexander F. Baillie
(2) Karachi Travel Guide, 2000 by Yasmeen Lari
(3) PTV Drama: Mirza Ghalib Bandar Road Par
(4) Title Photo is from www.harrapa.com
(5) 70th Anniversary Souvenir Map of the Tramways of Karachi, Pakistan. Compiled and published by F. Merton Atkins.
(6) Karachi during the British Era – Two histories of a modern city: Oxford University Press – 2007
(7) Mr. Arshad Kazmi of etchlite.com for priceless photos of Karachi Trams

ATP’s Posts on Tramways and Railways in Pakistan:

1. Journeys to Remember: Quatta-Lahore by Rail in 1925.
2. Journeys to Remember: Karachi-Peshawar by Rail in 1950s
3. Ghora Tram: Historic Horse Tram Returns to Gangapur
4. Karachi Tramway of Yesteryears
5. Khyber Pass Railway
6. Bolan Pass Railway
7. The Trans-Balochistan Railway
8. Changa Manga Forest Railway
9. Lansdowne Bridge, Sukkur
10. Railway Bridge on Indus at Attock
11. Khojak Tunnel
12. Chappar Rift
13. Karachi Circular Railway (KCR)
14. Zhob Valley Railway (ZVR)
15. How the First Locomotive Reached Lahore
16. 3000hp Iron Horses of Pakistan
17. Lahore Rapid Mass Transit Rail Project
18. A Phoenix Rises From the Ashes of Bakhshapur
19. ek masla hai… A Railway Runs Through It
20. Ava Gardner in Lahore for Bhowani Junction
21. The Meter-Gauge of Sindh
22. Indus Flotilla Company
23. Karachi to Kotri: First Railways in Pakistan
24. Pakistan Railway on the West Bank of Indus
25. SPS#3157: Pakistan’s Gift to the People of Britain
26. List of Railway Stations of Pakistan
27. 150th Anniversary of Railways in Pakistan

Pakistan Railway Discussion Group:

If you want to learn more about Pakistan Railways, then feel free to join the Pakistan Railway (PR) discussion group. Everything and anything related to PR is discussed here e.g. preserving of Pakistan’s rail heritage, steam locomotives, sharing of photos and news, time tables etc. You can join the discussion group here.

78 Comments on “The Karachi Tramway of Yesteryears”

  1. Khalid R Hasan says:
    September 14th, 2007 12:59 am

    Marvellous article! The ringing of the tram bell is one of my childhood memories along with the long handle rather than steering wheel used by its driver

  2. Rafay Kashmiri says:
    September 14th, 2007 3:39 am

    Thanks Ovais Mughul for such a nice memory of my city, the magic city, the pleasant evening’s breez, neat and clean roads ( washed every day) haunting colonial houses and modern flates, very sobre cosmopolitan visage of different ethnies living together in peace and respect. Bunder road where I was born had a charm no other city has yet given me.
    Thanks for the photos of trams I travelled every day for Bolton Market passing by Denso Hall, goodness gracious what beautiful time we had. Pakistan Zindabad

  3. September 14th, 2007 4:32 am

    Nicely portrayed!Though I had’t any great idea about the Trams but now I think I can clearly explain just as if I had been a part of that era.

  4. Salma Khan says:
    September 14th, 2007 6:27 am

    Thanks for remembrance!!!!

  5. Shahran Asim says:
    September 14th, 2007 7:14 am

    Great post,

    Unfortunately I was not able to take a ride in the tram but I do recall that my parents used to talk about the roads which used to be tram tracks and sometimes they still use that as reference. There was a tram track that goes from empress market to the Cantt area going through lucky star.

  6. prof.venugopal says:
    September 14th, 2007 10:03 am

    Owais
    It was an excellent article. Is it not sad that your authorities are not keen to keep this type of heritage systems for posterity. I think Calcutta gives an example in this regard. Though uneconomical and an obstacle in the way of the development of the city, they keep a portion of the old tramway intact.
    venugopal

  7. September 14th, 2007 10:13 am

    Owais
    Here is something which I forgot to write. Your beautiful background score. Excellent it was! Will you plse write the details of this ?

  8. Mehmood Batla says:
    September 14th, 2007 10:48 am

    Excellent Article ! The map & the photographs are brilliantly ! My parents still talk about the old Karachi and the trams as a reference especially when they see the trams in Toronto, Canada.

  9. mrizvi says:
    September 14th, 2007 11:27 am

    Wondeful post!

  10. MB says:
    September 14th, 2007 11:46 am

    Ahhhhhhhhhhhh!!!!!!!!!!
    Beautifullllllllll daysssssssss
    Golden past!!!!!!!!!

    Karachi where are you, come back again.
    http://publicmb.wordpress.com/2007/09/14/i-love-khi

  11. Sridhar says:
    September 14th, 2007 2:31 pm

    Owais:

    Wonderful post. Please keep them coming.

  12. Umair says:
    September 17th, 2007 1:00 am

    DID ANY BODY NOTICED THE BUBBLE UP SPONSOR ONTHE MOVING TRAM!! SO SExy!!

  13. Ram Mukundan says:
    September 23rd, 2007 7:49 am

    Excellent piece evoking lots of nostalgia. Thanks!

  14. Imad Ali says:
    September 25th, 2007 1:17 pm

    What a wonderful past Karachi has! The more I see of this glorious city in pictures of years past, the more I feel deprived that growing up in the 80s and 90s, the memories of my generation have been limited to Islamization, sectarian strife, and corrupt leaders.

    The Mohatta Palace is a good start but we need more museums where one can at least look back upon the relics of what a great city this used to be.

  15. Owais Mughal says:
    October 21st, 2007 3:19 pm

    I have come to know a full documentary was made by PTV’s producer Athar Wiqar Azeem in 1969-71 time frame about the Karachi Tramway. It is lying in PTV archives. Can anybody help me in getting more information about it?

  16. Owais Mughal says:
    November 13th, 2007 10:48 pm

    I’ve added the last photo of this article today. It is circa 1900 and shows a tram near Max Denso Hall on Bandar Road.

  17. Khalid Gauhar says:
    December 11th, 2007 11:28 am

    Aah.what were the days when I was a child in late 40s and early 50s when I in caompany vid my grand mother used to travel by tram from Said Manzil to Boltan Market to purcahse grocery items from Juna Market quite often. Iwish if those golden days could back again. I cant forget those days and scenes.

  18. January 22nd, 2008 11:37 am

    Owais

    Excellent article!

    I was interested in making Karachi Tramway museum by displaying a real GREEN TRAM with Tram history etched on glass along with old tramway pictures on the wall

    Looking of an old rusted structure, I can have it restored in California and send it back for display in a museum in Karachi.

    “Give a man an article; you have fed his nostalgic craving for today. Make a man visit a museum; and you have fed his nostalgic craving for a lifetime.”

    Any help or suggestions on Karachi Tramway museum project would be greatly appreciated.

  19. Owais Mughal says:
    January 22nd, 2008 11:56 am

    Arshad Saheb, I know a couple of people who may be very excited and interested in the idea of Karachi Tramway Museum including myself.

  20. Khalid Gauhar says:
    February 23rd, 2008 8:00 am

    V moved from India in 1947 and settled at Karacchi. V used to live at Marstan Road(behind Mama Parsi school) near jubilee cinema,Revali cinema.*crossing of Marstan Road and Barnes street. In those days there was Elite theater where there was Rewali Cinema. Perhaps in 1948 one cinema namely Erose Cinema was constructed. v usedto c the big posters of Old Indian movies lie,Awara,Andaz,Badal,Tarana,Taxi Driver,Aan,Ratan,Anmol garhi,Babul,Deedar etc. In those days Green colored Buses(Perhas LEYLAND) and Trams. The fare was one anna(6 paisa) from Saddar to Cantt.station. saddar to soldier bazaar,saddar to boltan market.Boltan market to Gandhi Garden(Zoological Garden).From Boltan market to Lea Market. and from Boltan Market to Keamari.The tram was two way driven.The entry was from both ways. the bell was fastened on both ends and pulled vid thin white rope. I used to stand beside driver and ring the horn just to enjoy its sound. What were those days. I cant forget my childhood memories. The population of Karachi in those days was 2-3 lacs.Open and wide roads,vid few cars,motor bikes,and cylce rickshaws. There was no fan in the houses,and no body use blankets,as the weather was moderate. The rain fall was 2-3 inches annually. the meat was Rs.2/- per seer.and beef was costing Rs.1/- per seer. Atta was 4 seer for one Rupee. In those days it was written in buses that change of more than Rs.1 will not be given to any passenger. I wish if those golden days could come back again.

  21. Owais Mughal says:
    February 23rd, 2008 8:40 am

    Khalid Gauhar Saheb, One thing i am trying to do as a hobby is to outline Tram routes on a Karachi map. Can you recall some of the tram routes for which you are sure they existed.

  22. Khalid Gauhar says:
    February 24th, 2008 12:09 pm

    My dear Owais Mughal.
    Thanks 4 the call.M now-a-days in Islamabad and passing a peaceful retired life.As per ur desire M giving the routes of the tramway service used to ply on Karachi roads during those golden days.
    1.Saddar-Cantt Station.
    2.Saddar-Soldier Bazar.
    3.Saddar-Boltan Mkt.
    4.Boltan Mkt-Gandhi Garden
    5.Boltan Mkt-Lea Mkt.
    6.Boltan Mkt-Keamari

  23. Owais Mughal says:
    February 24th, 2008 2:13 pm

    Khaled Saheb. Thanks. Also where was the saddar terminal located ? was it at Empress Market? Lucky Star ? Bohri Bazaar? etc

    Also where was the Bolton Market terminal? Was it on main Bandar Road or on a side road?

    I have very very faint memories of Tramway. Just a hazy image of riding it with my father. I was 4 years old when it was shut down for good that is why I am asking all these questions

  24. Khalid Gauhar says:
    February 24th, 2008 11:43 pm

    My dear Owais,
    Thanks again 4 making me 2 provide more information.
    In Saddar the tml was in front of flower shops ,Iqbal book depot,ch.farzand Apli Qulfi merchant and at the enterence of bohri Bazar.
    At Bander Road it was in front of perhaps State Bank Building around Laxmi Building
    One route of tram if M not mistaken was between Lea Mkt- Chakiwara(Plz.get it confirmed from other source also)

  25. Owais Mughal says:
    April 27th, 2008 1:55 am

    Guys, This post is updated today with atleast 16 new entries in the Chronology as well as about the information of tramway gauge which was 4 feet.

    Specs on Tramway Cars are also added.

  26. Khalid Gauhar says:
    June 20th, 2008 1:55 pm

    Mr.Owais Mughal,
    AoA. What abt ur future planning abt data collection vid regard to Traway service in the yesteryears of karachi. Have u finalised ur paper work.If so then when it is likely to come on net.
    Moreover r u thinking to move forward 2 revive mories of old karachi people.
    I cant foreget the period of Karachi particularly from 1947 to 1960.
    With best regards.

  27. Owais Mughal says:
    June 20th, 2008 10:03 pm

    Khalid Gauhar Saheb

    I have been able to find the whole system map of Karachi Tramway and I will share it on these pages soon.

  28. Khalid Gauhar says:
    June 22nd, 2008 3:47 am

    Dear Owais Mughal,
    AoA. Thanks 4 the reply,
    M anxiously waiting 4 the outcome of ur labourious work on this topic.

  29. June 22nd, 2008 4:58 am

    KIYA YAAD DILADIYA.

  30. Khalid Gauhar says:
    June 23rd, 2008 1:31 am

    Mr.Amain Panaawala,
    AoA
    kia huwa,
    Bhooli huwei yadoo mujh ko itna na satao,
    Aab chain se rehne do mere pass na aao.
    KAMBAKHT MAZI BOOLTA BHI NAHI.
    OH.

  31. Owais Mughal says:
    July 5th, 2008 12:17 am

    (1) I have added two historic photos of Karachi Tramway added to the post towards the end

    (2) The third last photo is improved in picture quality.

  32. Owais Mughal says:
    July 6th, 2008 12:05 am

    Following entry added in the chronology section:

    April 30, 1953: This news appeared in the daily Hindu about a strike at MTC:

    A large number of workers of the Karachi Tramways in Pakistan had gone on strike to protest against what they called

  33. Owais Mughal says:
    August 5th, 2008 11:31 pm

    In a book called

  34. Khalid Gauhar says:
    August 6th, 2008 2:01 am

    Thanks 4 posting new comments.
    I have seen tram services from 1947 to 1973 in Karachi. I suppose it was not as bad in 1952 as was in the closing stages.The trams were in broken conditions.The track was totally smashed,causting hazards to the road traffic.Even then tram was providing services to the residents.Any how it would not have been possible 4 the city 2 bear more burden of those trams.
    Is any one of tram has been placed in some museum of Karachi.

  35. August 6th, 2008 3:04 pm

    Khalid Guhar Sahab,

    Its sad……., but no one saved an old tram to be displayed in a Museum.

    I am working with British Museum to get an old tram restored and displayed at Karachi Heritage Museum along with the history of Karachi etched on glass.

    I am etching Karachi Tramway 1954 map on glass and will forward picture to Owais Mughal.

    Architectural drawing for Karachi Heritage Museum is in the pipeline, a small model of Karachi Heritage Museum is complete , dispalying a model Tramway parked in the middle of two storied Museum. 1930 Tram # 130
    black and white picture obtained from British museum is now restored in green and yellow color and would be displayed in a large backlit illuminated wall hanging frame. For Karachi Heritage Museum progress and update please e-mail info@etchlite.com

  36. Sonny Hamid says:
    October 2nd, 2008 11:40 am

    What an excellent job on reporting on the Karachi Tram System. Well done.

    Pls keep me posted on any progress on resotration and any other products or items for sale on this topic.

    Once again – a great job.

    Regards,

    SH

  37. Owais Mughal says:
    October 3rd, 2008 12:06 am

    The 4 missing photos of this post have now been restored.

  38. Owais Mughal says:
    January 10th, 2009 12:06 am

    Last photo of the post is added today. It is courtesy of Zain Yoonas and dates back to 1933. Gives a pretty crisp shot of a Karachi tram.

  39. adeel says:
    January 10th, 2009 5:27 am

    Wow! that last photo is superb!

  40. Haider Bilgrami says:
    January 17th, 2009 2:20 am

    Wow, Karachi was , is and will always remain beautiful. Just few hiccups here and there otherwise this is the greatest city to live in. I wish those who come here should respect and love this city as their own… Good Site Thanx

  41. Owais Mughal says:
    January 18th, 2009 7:31 pm

    Last photo of the post showing 2 trams in Saddar area, circa 1950s added today

  42. Sridhar says:
    January 18th, 2009 8:32 pm

    Owais,

    Nice to see all these pictures. I remember that I posted the picture on the very top of the page (on the Pak Railways group) – don’t remember other pictures at that time. Good to see the addition of many more photos since then. These photos show Karachi to be a very elegant, well-planned city, even in the 1930s.

    BTW, am I reading it wrong? The sign on the top right appears to me to be Nishat Hotel, rather than Nishat Place.

  43. Owais Mughal says:
    January 18th, 2009 8:38 pm

    Sridhar, you are right. The word is ‘Nishat Hotel’ and I have made the correction.

  44. Tariq mahmood says:
    February 14th, 2009 10:18 am

    Dear Owais
    asalam o alaikum
    Its an excellent effort to save above information for historians of future.Could you also tell the routs of tramway (eg from chakiwara to denso hall) and few other locations.

  45. Rashid Hassan says:
    March 13th, 2009 7:48 am

    Owais,this information is so good and there is such a lot of history that has simply vanished in todays society.
    I have seen a book recently with a vast amount of pictures of trams etc of karachi. I borrowed it from Edingburgh University Library. What a lovley book.I dint wish to return it but i had to as it belonged to the Library.

    Regards
    Rashid

  46. Owais Mughal says:
    March 13th, 2009 8:13 am

    Rashid Hassan thx for your comment. Do you remember the name of the book which you borrowed from Edinburgh U library?

  47. Jameel Bughio says:
    April 13th, 2009 11:25 am

    Wonderful reminder of the past. Thanks for your update.
    I very well remember tram journeys of Karachi. We used to reside in front of the St. Lawrence church, off Britto road, Karachi. The period I am talking is from 1959 to 1963.The nearest tram station was the one of soldier Bazar. The terminus ( no more than a sudden end of the tram line) was in front of the soldier bazar market. I do not know if the market is still there.We used to go to Saddar(usually), and beyond upto Keamari ( occasionally) with our father. I can still feel the buzzing and vibrations of this travelling machine. We could climb from any side as it was open from all the sides. There was no cover from the colder winter or the warm summer air or even rain. The seats were wooden and smoke used to come from the broken floor even. In fact smoke was everywhere.The driver was always standing and funny enough he would simply disengage a copper coloured lever sort of device/key and move to the other end of the tram and drive in the other direction. It could be driven from either end. The first row of seats behind the driver used to be of ladies. People used to travel even on the foot board on either side of the tram in rush hours. I am sure many passengers would climb and leave at will without paying in rush hours since the speed used to be slow. The horn was a ringing metallic clink sort of sound. ‘tin..tin..tin..tin..” and you would know the tram is coming. It will pass in a thin blanket of smoke all around, with vibrations felt even many feet away on the ground. The ticket checker was typically a thin Makrani sort of chap with a leather bag across his shoulders. The tickets were long chits of papers. I have forgotten the denominations.
    After getting down we used to continue feeling the vibrations right deep within our ears for quite sometime. We would walk away vibrating and buzzing ourselves for a minute or so!! But we used to enjoy the ride. Those were the worry free days of Karachi. Simple life. Less money but peace. When a single lolly pop was an occasional treat and we would cherish its taste for few days. When a half anna cheap plastic toy would make us happy for many days. When the aroma of ‘dal chawwal’ being cooked at home would be a 5star treat. When a 2 anna plastic and paper ‘sunglass’ would make us feel at the top of the world. ( My favourite shopping from the 4 anna eid-money)
    Jameel

  48. Owais Mughal says:
    April 15th, 2009 9:03 pm

    Jameel saheb, great recall of your memories of Karachi trams. I for one, thoroughly enjoyed reading your recall of tram trips. Please share more, when you get time.

  49. Syed Aher Ali says:
    April 26th, 2009 7:54 am

    Pictures could have been of better resolution but overall an excellent work.

  50. khalid Gauhar says:
    May 17th, 2009 1:26 pm

    Excellent work done by Jameel Bughio by giving useful information. The fare of tram in those days was simply one Anna.
    Owais Mughal deserves to be honored with gold medal by City Government 4 his tremandous work.

  51. Owais Mughal says:
    June 2nd, 2009 12:58 am

    A 1910 photo of a petrol tram car added to the post under the heading “The East India Tramway Company”

  52. Owais Mughal says:
    June 2nd, 2009 1:01 am

    Vintage Photos of Tram Cars number 128, 130 and 139, which once ran on Karachi Tramway network are added to the post

  53. Owais Mughal says:
    June 2nd, 2009 1:31 am

    Route Map of Karachi Tramway from 1950 added to the post today

  54. Michael Ali says:
    June 2nd, 2009 6:13 pm

    Excellent article and photos.

    I remember the trams well as I used them in childhood. The fare was 1 Anna. I also remember seen a tram in the Museum grounds of Burns Garden but I believe it is not there now.

    Also the Nishat Hotel was in the vicinity of the 7th Day Adventist Hospital on Bunder Road.

    The old structure in the background is the Titanic Building on Garden Road.

    Today, the Gul Center stands on the old Tram Depot on Bunder Road ( now M.A. Jinnah Road) besides the Rimpa Plaza.

  55. Owais Mughal says:
    June 2nd, 2009 6:15 pm

    Michael Ali, thanks for sharing your memories. Do you know if present day Nishat Cinema was built in place of older Nishat Hotel?

  56. Shirley Krull says:
    June 5th, 2009 10:24 am

    The link below is close to my heart since I grew up in this city and we had one of these trams 3 minutes from my house.
    My mum (Mrs. Dias) left us to be with Jesus 32 years ago. My mum used to take all the girls from my neighbourhood in the tram to an ice-cream (Faludah) shop in the next town for a treat. What I liked best was to stand up front with the driver and pretend that I was driving, and the driver would sometimes let me press the horn, so needless to say it brings back many good memories.

  57. June 5th, 2009 11:14 am

    I remember the Karachi tramways well. During my early childhood, we used to play (kick the can) – run, jump the tram and let the poor old fool seek you. We travelled as far as Kemari Bridge and then returned on another tram. However, we never paid any fares. We just jumped on and off a tram when a ticket collector showed themselves.This was tricky on the Lawrence and Bundar roads owing to heavy traffic.Incidentally, the tram company was owned by a Grammar school class mates father and they lived opposite the tram depot and just before the Lady Fatima church.Directly adjacent to this huge house, was a Parsi family ‘Minwalla’s’ and we often stole fruit from their garden using the convenient high wall.The Baxter family lived opposite them.And lovely June Peazold round the corner.All in all, memorable days.

  58. Khalid Gauhar says:
    June 9th, 2009 1:45 am

    My dear Owais,
    AOA
    u r doing wonderful job and the people r cooperating with u. This is very heartening. As far Nishat Hotel is concerned Ithink both Naz and Nishat cinemas r prepartition days structures. In olden days the green colored tram passes in between two cinemas on its way to Soldier bazar from Saddar.
    New addition of pics of trams is another feather to the article.

  59. Owais Mughal says:
    June 9th, 2009 1:15 pm

    shukria Khalid Saheb. Your recall of Trams memory is highly appreciated. Many people have memories related to Tramway and by sharing them here we are slowly but surely archiving an indirect history of the tramway as it affected people’s nostalgia, memories and events. These anecdotes are not captured anywhere else e.g. you won’t find them in official history books etc.

  60. kauser Khan says:
    October 19th, 2009 4:33 am

    We have gone backwards in this city and in the country. What a shame! It will never be the same again…..not in our lifetimes anyway.

  61. Bill ( Bilal) Latif Said says:
    December 19th, 2009 3:24 pm

    I was born in Seventh Day Adventist Hospital, son of Dr. Abdul Latif and grandson of Dr. Abdus Said, the builder of Said Manzil. The tram would stop on Bunder Road ( Jihhan Rd), for a few pesas I could get to Empress Market, then walk to St. Patricks High School. St. Pats, where all my family and extended family received our education. With the green tram, always running, in the 70′s mostly empty. Nostalgia is not good, it makes you cry to see the condition of Karachi now. My family left and never went back after 1978, 3 years after the tram stopped. It could have been very different, the tram should have been converted to electric and Karachi should have embraced the British traditions, not abandon them.

  62. Owais Mughal says:
    December 20th, 2009 8:09 am

    Bilal Saheb, your comment is appreciated. Thanks for stopping by at these pages and sharing your thoughts.

  63. March 24th, 2010 11:15 am

    namskar

    todai i made search of the old photograph of karachi tram. in which i had injoyed travel in my child hood. this photo graphs has made a tremendous feelings and sweet rememberences of karachi that i left in 1947. godd good very good

  64. Owais Mughal says:
    March 24th, 2010 11:24 am

    kanu bhai dave, thanks. what othe memories you have about Karachi trams? Do you remember any routes? the fares? General condiotion of the trams? or any other detail that you may remember

  65. April 12th, 2010 10:22 am

    I travelled on unique Trams in Karachi several times between March 1970 and 1975. It was, in fact a wonderful journey. In those days, Trams were running from Empress Market to Bouldon Market and very few to Soldier Bazaar. The fare was only 10 Paisas one way. Interestingly, many people were unwilling to pay even 10 Paisas. When Checker used to come on one side, they immediately gone on other side. Thus, they were saving 10 Paisas only whereas majority of passengers were paying the fares at their own.

    I still remember the last days of the Trams in Karachi. When Trams service was discontinued, I was working in PTV News, Karachi Centre and translated the feature on the subject which was telecast on closure of the Trams.

  66. Owais Mughal says:
    April 12th, 2010 10:26 am

    Dear Mohammad Khan Sial, thanks for your comments. I for one, have been looking for that documentary that PTV did on the closure of Karachi Trams. Do you have any idea where it is kept? Is there any archive library in PTV Karachi or Islamabad, where one should go and look for it?

  67. June 29th, 2010 12:54 pm

    Dear Mr Owais,

    PTV has Achieve but they do not keep all documentaries ther. However, this was very important documentary. You may write to PTV Islamabad direct, they may help you

    Mohammad Khan Sial
    http://sialtravel.webs.com

  68. March 8th, 2011 10:16 pm
  69. July 24th, 2011 3:55 am

    In 1972-74, under United Nations Development Programme, I worked as transport consultant to develop a 20 years road and bus & transport programme for the city under the Karachi Development Authority. Our office was on Preedy Street and for some time I was housed at the residence of the Sind Club. Among the first transport item that peaked my interest was the Tramway. Over two years I met several times with the Mohamedeli Brothers and their sons. At the time there were still three lines running, Bunder Road, Cantonment Station, and Solider’s Bazaar. The trams were amazing for their simple design and rugged strength to continually operate under extreme passenger loads. All trams had a “requirement” that the front open bench [behind the driver] was reserved ONLY for women. On Bunder Road I saw 120 passenger fill one tram is less than 25 seconds. All trams were open-sided. There were running boards on both sides and a two man crew. To get KDA and UNDP more interested in this technology, I “chartered” a tram for early Sunday morning operation over the three route and invited UN, KDA, and city officials to take advantage of this opportunity to understand its workings. Of course, one reason I chartered it was also to permit me to be able to ride up in the front. Since had never been a charter tram on line the company provided us with five security gentlemen to advise the general public that this was NOT an ordinary car. Also, the company completely repainted the car and seats in green and cream. It looked absolutely new. At the time there were still 30+ units in operational condition. There were more than 40 units out of service. The staff, including maintenance, was about 300. I wrote a technical paper about spending US$400,000 to place new track and purchase new motors for the cars. At one point 19 cars per day on Bunder Road were handling over 30,000 trips per day. Government did not welcome the report. The brothers had become tired of the daily fighting with authorities about the trams. They held out for a few years simply to get permission from the city to be able to extract the rails from the city streets without payment or tax. In early 1975 the authorities agreed they could “have” the tracks. Within 24 hours the service was history. Also the maintenance base was a very large parcel of land within the center of the city, so that had a potential high price in sale. When the service was terminated one tram was retained as a museum piece. I have no idea if it still exists. I have original UK engineering drawings of the cars and many colour slides of the operation in the early 1970s. Over the years I have seen a few films/video of moving vehicles, but I don’t have a source for them at this time. During the time I was there, they taught how to control the trams. It was a fun thing to shift gears, increase speed, ring bells, and watch all hazards along the route.

  70. Owais Mughal says:
    July 24th, 2011 8:10 am

    Mr. Lee
    Thanks for providing the nostalgic as well as informative comment on Karachi tramway. It was interesting to read about 120 people filling up the tram in less than 25 seconds :)

  71. July 27th, 2011 6:48 am

    Greeting Mr Owais Moghal. Thank you for you comments. I need you assistance about another transport subject of Karachi. I had an extensive research made in 1972-3 regarding the tonga services in various parts of the city. I would like to provide people with some “insight” about the tonga route between Lea Market and Lyari River on Tannery Road. Should I post the information here, or is there some more relevant place I should put the information. Thanks for your help. Lee H Rogers

  72. Khalid Rabbani says:
    July 27th, 2011 5:05 pm

    Dear All,

    I came across this piece of info quite accidentally but really loved it. Hats off to Mr. Owais Mughal for putting togethor such a rare collection.

    Being a Karachite and in the railway business in UAE (Dubai Metro) this filled me with pride and provided something to share with my colleagues.

    @ Mr. Rogers.. Thank you for your informative para. I think it will be wonderful if you could share the tonga report as well.

  73. Lee H Rogers says:
    July 30th, 2011 1:40 am

    Karachi Tongas 1972-73, Lee H Rogers,
    Int’l Transport Planner

    I have been an international transportation planner and economist since 1961. I have been collecting books, manuscripts, and magazines about all forms of transportation – both urban and rural. Unlike so many “modern” planners, I have included data & information in my library on non-motorized options for urban and rural technology. I point this out, because I have reviewed books and publications of the 1870-1880 period which gave insight into economic use of horse and mule services for urban transportation. Basically, what these items showed was that a company having 90 small trams would require upward s of 700 horses for full daily use. A healthy horse would provide 5-7 years of reasonable service if cared for properly. This meant that a horse could not work more than four hours per day. So if your company was providing 12 hours of service per day, you required three to six horses per revenue tram. Flat areas without severe temperatures could manage with three horses whereas extreme hot or hilly routes would require dual-teams of horses for the same service.
    Second, before I arrived to the UNDP urban programme for Karachi, I was a consultant for the recently formed US Dept of Transportation, UMTA – Urban Mass Transportation Administration. One of my assignments was to evaluate the emerging “new” technologies now known as APM Automatic People Movers. These were small vehicles that would run on special alignments like a lift, but horizontally rather than vertically. The idea was very interesting. Several USA, German, English & Japanese firms “entered” this field for a few months to several years. The majority of those firms gave up after only two years or less. I was asked to evaluate the APM technology of Boeing Aircraft that was built in Morgantown, West Virginia USA. Although this technology is still in use in 2011, it gave evidence of the challenges with APM methods. Boeing actually withdrew from this project in 1976. The vehicle was supposed to be available WHEN the passenger wanted it. It was to travel directly to the location the passenger wanted – not like a bus with a series of stops along the way. It was supposed to be reliable which it certainly wasn’t. As this technology and others indicated I may NOT have any on-board staff on the vehicle, but I have so MANY control people and maintenance people that the reduced labour costs were lost. I gave a very unfavorable report about the Boeing technology.
    I arrived to Karachi in Oct 1972. I was charged with preparing a comprehensive investment plan for transportation needs through the year 1995. That seemed a long way off in 1972. I am not one to sit in an office and simply look at reports. One needs to get out – at all hours of the day and night – and actually see how traffic if flowing and being generated, location by location. It might be difficult, but I did volunteer for the assignment. As in any profession DO NOT automatically prejudge was is good and bad. As with life, there is good and bad in anything we do. As I remember I identified 23 methods of transport within Karachi – for both passengers and goods. Some were “ordinary” like lorries, minibus, bus, private auto/saloon, pedestrians, bicycles, etc. But others were special – either to the region or to Karachi. These included camel-carts, tongas, victorias, motorized rickshaw, and non-electric trams. Although much of my young transport staff did NOT want to “lower” themselves to looking at such “inferior” methods – I quickly got them to do it by simply going out with them to count the passengers, bicycles, vendor carts, and tongas. They had never had the experience of having a senior staffer [especially a foreigner] who would go out on the street and do this.
    Well, one of the locations I quickly found was Tannery Road between the Lea Market and the Lyari River. First this road was two-way, but extremely narrow with built up structure right to the edge of the road. So government would not have an easy time to widen this road. Second, the road ENDED at the River. It did not have a bridge to cross to the north. It would have been hard to build a bridge there because that part of the river was used by thousands of individuals to wash clothes. These were NOT people washing their own clothes, but rather traders whos business was to collect material from families and firms and then wash, iron, and redeliver “fresh” clothing. Even to this day, when I think of the condition of this extremely polluted river, I can’t fathom the clothes being clean. That was one of a thousand things in Karachi that WERE NOT MY PROBLEM.
    OK. This road of about 2.5 miles was so narrow that two standard buses or Thames lorry could only pass in opposite conditions as speeds of just 3mph or less – frequently their side mirrors would hit into the walls fronting the street. The result was that large motor vehicles tried to stay away from Tannery Rd. This one road had more than 20,000 residents in the area. It was teaming. Local communities I remember were Rangiwara, Chakiwara, Gullistan & Bihar Colony. So what was the local transport? The Karachi Omnibus Service did not provide any services – due to very low speed of the road traffic and narrowness of the road. At the time there were very few minibuses on this route because there were much more lucrative routes on broader roads that they could make more revenue. So what we had was a tonga service that originated and terminated at the two ends of Tannery Road. I have slides of it but I don’t remember exactly where the tongas ended at Lea Market. It was a large open space just to the side of the street. At the north end was another spot like this. At each of these end of the line – the tongas were lined up awaiting their turn for the turn trip. There were normally 60-80 tongas at each terminus. From one end to another the actual tonga trip was 20minutes or less. Now, one of the things I liked about this service was there was NO overloading of the vehicle [compared to bus or minibus] Three normal sized people or four very skinny people could sit on the rear bench and on the front bench. So only 6-8 people could be transported [excluding young children]. It 6-8 were seated, the driver would stand on the step to control the horse. My young staff quickly pointed out the vehicles were TOO small. Why consider it? I asked them to count IN EACH DIRECTION how many tongas passed per 30 minutes or per hour. My insight quickly showed itself. Over an hour period, in both directions the spacing was 12-15 seconds per direction. So each hour per direction the simple tonga was providing 1440 to 1800 spaced for passengers. First, with the narrow street there was NOT any way I could achieve such capacity with big buses – they didn’t fit easily within the street width. So the tongas certainly provided a good service to the public. Also, public bus has “set” halts/stops. They tongas could stop at any location along the route – so the patron did NOT have to walk a long distance to their little pathway into the interior of the urban development. It was a custom service for the local people.
    No the aspects that really impressed me was that when the driver arrived at either terminus – what did he do? Well, he took the basket of grass & grain from under the seat of his tonga and PLACED it on the back step of the tonga that was in front of his. Then, he walked over to the tea-house/shop and spent 15-20 minutes with his comrades/fellow drivers having a smoke or a tea and conversations. The 50-60 plus tongas in the line would AUTOMATICALLY move forward to the front of the line as the lead tonga departed. It did NOT need any person standing there pushing the horses up to the front. It worked like a charm. Citing my earlier comments about Morgantown, the Tannery Road had better control of vehicles and schedules than the “modern” technology.
    The next items are the following – it became more important during the end of 1973 when the first major oil price increases took place. These items are the following: 1: Tongas are a vehicle NOT imported, they are 100% made within Pakistan. Even the metal parts qualified for this because they were made mostly out of scrap iron from old lorries and buses. 2: the drivers were available – not from another nation. Also, this was the type of “entry” job suited to many young males immigrating into the Karachi from rural areas of Pakistan. 3: the technology did NOT run on petrol or diesel. It ran on grass and grains – locally obtained within country – no foreign exchange requirement. The driver earned a wage [rather than begging]. He learned more about city life, as he did this job. It provided a service that strengthened the neighborhood. It served the young and the old in a better way. Tongas could be used to divert from the route when fetching children to or from school. They could be used like taxis – if someone was bring home a large box or package like a small frig, stove, TV, etc. Given the low education level of many young males; given the demand for work; given the low capital cost of tonga technology; give that repair was done locally – it was an effective way on back streets to hand major passenger demands. Also, tongas tended to keep powered vehicles at lower speeds due to congestion and nearby activities – this reduced severity of accidents with powered vehicles on these back streets.
    When I presented this paper to the KDA, it seemed to confuse more of the auto-owning senior staff. They had NEVER received a positive report from a foreigner that tongas were a positive force within the city. We had a lot of discussion about this. They were not happy. Sometime in early 1973 I took one of the junior staff to the field. He and I arranged a “charter” of 15-16 tongas for the coming Sunday. We made one of the tonga drivers the “leader” and told them to come to Preedy Street at 9AM. I sent circulars to city officials, KDA officials, staff, UNDP personnel and others to partake of a FREE tonga trip through the center of Karachi. [At that time Sunday was the day off] I forget the whole route, but I did take them to Cantonment Station, Soldier’s Bazzar, the Clock Tower, Empress Market & other places. It was probably the ONLY time that any of the non-Pakistani had ridden in a tonga.
    When I find my notes about all this I will update what I have just told you. But you can see after more than 40 years the memories and reasons for this service still remain inside my “transport” brain. I hope you enjoy this. I will keep in touch.

    Lee H. Rogers

    A short background. I have worked in transport from 1961 up to 2011. I did urban transport work in Karachi as various time from 1972 until 1995. I have worked in Lahore, Islamabad, Rawalpindi during the 1990s. I was on the time that did the first national transport study for Ghana, and the highway rehab program in Nigeria in 1971-72. I have worked in 15+ nations from Indonesia to Brasil & Bolivia. I helped to build a new technology railway in Jakarta Indonesia in 1988-89 – It is still running. I wrote three publications for UITP of Brussels which reviewed all urban transport in more than 600 cities worldwide. As this short tonga memo indicates, it has been my habit to ALWAYS keep at least ONE copy of my reports and field work – so when, in 20+ years nobody can find it, I still have a copy to show people. If anyone has questions or comments I look forward to them. Thanks.

  74. Owais Mughal says:
    July 30th, 2011 11:09 am

    Mr. Lee
    Fascinating story about the tonga service on Tannery road. I never knew about it. I only knew about the Victoria service which has been in operation in Karachi since 19th century – though it is on its last gasps now – being confined only to toursits rides near Mr. Jinnah’s mausoleum.

    The public laundry you mentioned near the end of Tannery road is the famous ‘dhobi ghaat’ of Karachi and it remains a popular tourist spot to this day because of its intricate system of collection and distribution of hundreds of thousands of pieces laundry plus the colorful scenery they create at Liyari river.

  75. October 19th, 2014 4:11 am

    He is really a bottomless pit of needs, always looking ahead and not feeling satisfied.
    Despite endless hours taking a look at cybersex, no amount is ever enough.
    When with it, you’ll be able to instantly organize and conduct your
    own live lesbians Webcams session. Chat lines shouldn’t really be taken too
    seriously and should be seen as a method of having a certain amount
    of fun without having strings attached. Mired in feelings of worthlessness, defectiveness and despair, he is full of doubt about
    his very validity.

  76. game of thrones season 5 predictions says:
    October 23rd, 2014 3:16 am

    For example, have a rushing sport in which
    automobiles are developed to prevent piling, and they encounter an obstacle within the
    course: the vehicles might then operate to avoid the obstacle evoking
    the automobiles in it to sluggish and/or maneuver to support the
    automobiles before them and the barrier. Twentynine percent of sport players are a rise
    from nine percent in 1999, on 50′s age. Video game controversy will come
    in many sorts, and censorship is actually a topic that is
    controversial.

  77. Gutscheine says:
    October 27th, 2014 7:56 pm

    We stumbled over here from a different web address and
    thought I might check things out. I like what I see
    so i am just following you. Look forward to looking over your web page yet again.

  78. October 29th, 2014 1:48 am

    I don’t even understand how I finished up here, but I believed this post was once
    great. I don’t recognise who you’re but certainly you’re going to a well-known blogger in the event you aren’t already.
    Cheers!

Have Your Say (Bol, magar piyar say)